By the time of the XXVth Dynasty the cursive of the conservative Thebais had become very obscure.
The first method distinguishes between uncial or majuscule, and cursive or minuscule; the second between papyrus, vellum or parchment, and paper (for further details see Manuscript and Palaeography); and the third distinguishes mainly between Gospels, Acts and Epistles (with or without the Apocalypse), New Testaments (the word in this connexion being somewhat broadly interpreted), lectionaries and commentaries.
It is in the Rabbinic and Cursive characters that the differences are most noticeable.
About the time of Ergamenes, or (according to some authorities) before, a vernacular came to be employed in inscriptions, written in a special alphabet of 23 signs in parallel hieroglyphic and cursive forms. The cursive is to be read from right to left, the hieroglyphic, contrary to the Egyptian method, in the direction in which the figures face.
Thus the Roman letters E and F are liable to be confused in capital script, but not in cursive (e, f), C, G, in capitals, c, e in the cursive writing called Caroline minuscule, c, t, in the angular cursive of the 13th century and later.
Of cursive letters: Marenghi, 130, "the dim ocean" for "the dun ocean"; Letter to Maria Gisborne 126, sqq., ",above I One chasm of Heaven smiles like the age of Love I On the unquiet world" for "eye."
Of the Bible or important texts, and in most printed books, (b) the Rabbinic(or Rashi) character, used in commentaries and treatises of all kinds, both in MS. and in printed books, (c) the Cursive character, used in letters and for informal purposes, not as a rule printed.
The written nieroglyphs, formed by the scribe with the reed pen on papyrus, eather, wooden tablets, &c., have their outlines more or less abbreyitted, producing eventually the cursive scripts hieratic and demotmc. The written hieroglyphs were employed at all periods, especially or religious texts, Hieratic.A kind of cursive hieroglyphic or hieratic writing is ound even in the 1st Dynasty.
High relief carving corresponds to the kaisho, or most classical form of writing; medium relief to the gyosho, or semi-cursive style; and low relief to the sOsho or grass character.
Tonmi introduced the modified Sanskritic " writing in thirty characters " (already detailed under Language and six of which do not exist in Sanskrit) in two styles - the " thick letters " or " letters with heads " (u-ch'en), now commonly used in printed books, and the half-cursive " cornered letters," so called from their less regular heads.
The Tibetan half-cursive was further developed into the more current " headless " (u-med) characters, of which there are several styles.
For the restoration of the Greek text we have, besides many Greek MSS., uncial and cursive, the old Latin, the Syro-Hexaplar, the Armenian, Sahidic and Ethiopic versions, as well as a considerable number of quotations in the Greek and Latin Fathers.
~ equipment ~ knife di di characterized, and in its most cursive form seems hardly to retain any definable trace of the original hieroglyphic pictures.
Thus in Greek cursive MSS.
And is the true demotic. Before the Macedonian conquest the cursive ligatures of the old de1notic gave birth to new symbols which were carefully and distinctly formed, and a little later an epigraphic variety was engraved on stone, as in the case of the Rosetta stone itself.
According to this view the alphabet was borrowed by the Phoenicians from the cursive (hieratic) form of Egyptian hieroglyphics.
3 Archiv fiir slavische Philologie, 191 where the Glagolitic and the cursive Greek, the Cyrillic and the Greek uncial are set side by side in facsimile.
The former soon fell into disuse for ordinary purposes and was retained only for inscriptions, coins, &c.; the latter, which is more cursive in character, is the parent of the Arabic writing of the present day.
Chamberlain, the necessity of committing to memory two syllabaries, one of which has many variant forms, and at least two or three thousand Chinese ideographs, in forms standard and cursive ideographs, too, most of which are susceptible of three or four different readings according to circuinstance,add, further, that all these kinds of written symbols are apt to be encountered pell mell on the same page, and the task of mastering Japanese becomes almost Herculean.
They passed through various modifications in the course of time; after leaving the mother country the script acquires a more cursive, flowing style on the stones from Cyprus and Attica; the tendency becomes more strongly marked at the Punic stage; until in the neo-Punic, from the destruction of Carthage (146 B.C.) to the 1st century A.D.; both the writing and the language reached their most degenerate form.
B and in the other uncial MSS., (b) that preserved in the cursive codex 248 (Holmes and Parsons).
Demotic.Widely varying degrees of cursiveness are at all periods observable in hieratic; but, about the XXVLth Dynasty, which inaugurated a great commercial era, there was something like a definite parting between the uncial hieratic and the most cursive form afterwards known as demotic. The employment of hieratic was thenceforth almost confined to the copying of religious and other traditional texts on papyrus, while demotic was used not only for all business but also for writing literary and even religious texts in the popular language.