It forms a characteristic explosive silver salt on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate to its aqueous solution, and an amorphous precipitate which explodes on warming with ammoniacal cuprous chloride.
The action of these acids on many metals was also studied; Glauber obtained zinc, stannic, arsenious and cuprous chlorides by dissolving the metals in hydrochloric acid, compounds hitherto obtained by heating the metals with corrosive sublimate, and consequently supposed to contain mercury.
If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.
Barreswil found that a strongly alkaline solution of copper sulphate and potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) remained unchanged on boiling, but yielded an immediate precipitate of red cuprous oxide when a solution of glucose was added.
Volumetric methods are used, but the uncertainty of the end of the reaction has led to the suggestion of special indicators, or of determining the amount of cuprous oxide gravimetrically.
Nitro compounds have also been prepared by the action of cuprous oxide on diazonium salts (T.
But the presence of moderate proportions of cuprous oxide has been found to correct the evil influence of small contaminations by arsenic, antimony, lead and other foreign metals.
The following are the most important exceptions: silver chloride, AgC1, and mercurous chloride, HgCI, are absolutely insoluble; lead chloride, PbC1 2, and cuprous chloride, CuCI, are very sparingly soluble in water.
It may conveniently be extended to similar mixtures of sulphur and selenium or tellurium, of bismuth and sulphur, of copper and cuprous oxide, and of iron and carbon, in fact to all cases in which substances can be made to mix in varying proportions without very marked indication of chemical action.
Acetylene is readily soluble in water, which at normal temperature and pressure takes up a little more than its own volume of the gas, and yields a solution giving a purple-red precipitate with ammoniacal cuprous chloride and a white precipitate with silver nitrate, these precipitates consisting of acetylides of the metals.
Before the commercial production of calcium carbide made it one of the most easily obtainable gases, the processes which were most largely adopted for its preparation in laboratories were: - first, the decomposition of ethylene bromide by dropping it slowly into a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, and purifying the evolved gas from the volatile bromethylene by washing it through a second flask containing a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, or by passing it over moderately heated soda lime; and, second, the more ordinarily adopted process of passing the products of incomplete combustion from a Bunsen burner, the flame of which had struck back, through an ammoniacal solution of cuprous chloride, when the red copper acetylide was produced.
Frank of Charlottenburg, who finds that a concentrated solution of cuprous chloride in an acid, the liquid being made into a paste with kieselgiihr, is the most effective.
It is rapidly absorbed by an ammoniacal or acid (hydrochloric acid) solution of cuprous chloride.
Replacement of -NH 2 by halogens and by the - CN and - CNO groups :- The diazonium salt is warmed with an acid solution of the corresponding cuprous salt (T.
In the case of iodine, the substitution is effected by adding a warm solution of potassium iodide to the diazonium solution, no copper or cuprous salt being necessary; whilst for the production of nitriles a solution of potassium cuprous cyanide is used.
Pepper, Dingler's Jour., 1863, 167, p. 39): 2Zn0-1-4NaN03= 2Zn(ONa) 2 +2N 2 +50 2; by the use of cuprous chloride which when mixed with clay and sand, moistened with water and heated in a current of air at 100-200° C. yields an oxychloride, which latter yields oxygen when heated to 400° C (A.
Many are readily soluble in water, the chief exceptions being silver chloride, mercurous chloride, cuprous chloride and palladious chloride which are insoluble in water, and thallous chloride and lead chloride which are only slightly soluble in cold water, but are readily soluble in hot water.
Copper is a brilliant metal of a peculiar red colour which assumes a pinkish or yellowish tinge on a freshly fractured surface of the pure metal, and is purplish when the metal contains cuprous oxide.
Sulphuric and hydrochloric acids have little or no action upon it at ordinary temperatures, even when in a fine state of division; but on heating, copper sulphate and sulphur dioxide are formed in the first case, and cuprous chloride and hydrogen in the second.
In the process of oxidation, a certain amount of cuprous oxide is always formed, which melts in with the copper and diminishes its softness and tenacity.
Ferrous chloride decomposes the copper oxide and carbonate with the formation of cuprous and cupric chlorides (which remain in solution), and the precipitation of ferrous oxide, carbon dioxide being simultaneously liberated from the carbonate.
Sulphur dioxide is then blown in, and the precipitate is treated with iron, which produces metallic copper, or milk of lime, which produces cuprous oxide.
In this process (" new Douglas-Hunt ") there are no iron oxides formed, the silver is not dissolved, and the quantity of iron necessary is relatively small, since all the copper is in the cuprous condition.
The precipitation of the copper from the solution, in which it is present as sulphate, or as cuprous and cupric chlorides, is generally effected by metallic iron.
Copper sulphide may be converted either into the sulphate, which is soluble in water; the oxide, soluble in sulphuric or hydrochloric acid; cupric chloride, soluble in water; or cuprous chloride, which is soluble in solutions of metallic chlorides.
Of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.
The most important are cuprous oxide, Cu 2 0, and cupric oxide, CuO, both of Oxides which give rise to well-defined series of salts.
Cuprous oxide, Cu 2 0, occurs in nature as the mineral cuprite (q.v.).
Cuprous oxide is reduced by hydrogen, carbon monoxide, charcoal, or iron, to the metal; it dissolves in hydrochloric acid forming cuprous chloride, and in other mineral acids to form cupric salts, with the separation of copper.
A hydrated cuprous oxide, (4Cu 2 O, H 2 0), is obtained as a bright yellow powder, when cuprous chloride is treated with potash or soda.
Cuprous oxide corresponds to the series of cuprous salts, which are mostly white in colour, insoluble in water, and readily oxidized to cupric salts.
Cuprous hydride, (CuH) n, was first obtained by Wurtz in 1844, who treated a solution of copper sulphate with hypophosphorous acid, at a temperature not exceeding 70° C. According to E.
Cuprous fluoride, CuF, is a ruby-red crystalline mass, formed by heating cuprous chloride in an atmosphere of hydrofluoric acid at I g oo°-1200° C. It is soluble in boiling hydrochloric acid, but it is not reprecipitated by water, as is the case with cuprous chloride.
Cuprous chloride, CuCl or Cu 2 Cl 21 was obtained by Robert Boyle by heating copper with mercuric chloride.
This solution absorbs acetylene with the precipitation of red cuprous acetylide, Cu 2 C 2, a very explosive compound.
Cuprous iodide, Cu 2 l 21 is obtained as a white powder, which suffers little alteration on exposure, by the direct union of its components or by mixing solutions of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid and potassium iodide; or, with liberation of iodine, by adding potassium iodide to a cupric salt.
Cuprous sulphide, Cu 2 S, occurs in nature as the mineral chalcocite or copper-glance, and may be obtained as a black brittle mass by the direct combination of its constituents.
It may be prepared by heating cuprous sulphide with sulphur, or triturating cuprous sulphide with cold strong nitric acid, or as a dark brown precipitate by treating a copper solution with sulphuretted hydrogen.
Cuprous sulphite, CuS0 3 H 2 O, is obtained as a brownish-red crystalline powder by treating cuprous hydrate with sulphurous acid.
A copper nitride, Cu 3 N, is obtained by heating precipitated cuprous oxide in ammonia gas (A.
The phosphide obtained by heating cupric phosphate, Cu 2 H 2 P 2 O 81 in hydrogen, when mixed with potassium and cuprous sulphides or levigated coke, constitutes " Abel's fuse," which is used as a primer.
A phosphide, Cu 3 P 2, is formed by passing phosphoretted hydrogen over heated cuprous chloride.
This is imperfectly accomplished, in the wet way, by cupric and cuprous chloride solutions, but completely so, in the dry way, by roasting with salt (chloridizing roasting).
Cupric chloride acts upon argentite (Ag2S+ CuC1 2 =2AgC1+CuS), proustite (4Ag 3 AsS 3 +4CuC1 2 =8AgC1-}- 2Ag 2 S+4CuS+2As 2 S 3), pyrargyrite (2Ag 3 SbS 3 -I-3CuC1 2 =6AgC1+ 3CuS+Sb 2 S 3), and is also reduced to cuprous chloride by metallic iron.
Krohnke into Copiapo, Chile, in 1860, the silver mineral of the pulverized ore is decomposed in a revolving barrel by a hot solution of cuprous chloride in brine in the presence of zinc or lead and quicksilver (see B.
Chemical reagents are sometimes added - lime or sulphuric acid, to neutralize an excess of acid or alkali; copper sulphate, to form cuprous chloride with sodium chloride; and iron and zinc, to make the galvanic action more energetic and reduce the consumption of iron.
Hofmann (Hofmann process); finally, sodium hyposulphite with cuprous hyposulphite was first applied by Russell in 1884, who included in his process the acidulation of the first wash-water (to neutralize any harmful alkaline reaction), and the separation of lead with sodium carbonate from the silver solution previous to precipitating with sodium sulphide (see C. A.
If the sodium cuprous hyposulphite was used as a solvent in addition to the simple sodium hyposulphite, cuprous sulphide will be precipitated with the silver sulphide, and the precipitate will be of lower grade.
The rationale of the process is that the sulphite hardly acts upon the dissolved oxide of silver, but it reduces some of the cupric oxide to cuprous oxide, which reduces its equivalent of silver oxide to silver and reforming cupric oxide which passes through the same cycle.
Phosphine may be prepared by the decomposition of calcium phosphide with water (P 2 H 4 being formed simultaneously); by the decomposition of phosphorous and hypophosphorous acids when strongly heated; and by the action of solutions of the caustic alkalis on phosphorus: P4+3NaOH+3H20= PH3+3NaH2P02; hydrogen and P 2 H 4 are produced at the same time, and the gas may be freed from the latter substance by passing into a hydrochloric acid solution of cuprous chloride, and heating the solution, when pure phosphine is liberated (Riban, Comptes rendus, 58, p. 581).