On the west coast Cupressus Lawsoniana replaces the northern Thuya gigantea, and a laurel (Umbellularia of isolated affinity) forms forests.
CYPRESS (Cupressus), in botany, a genus of fifteen species belonging to the tribe Cupressineae, natural order Coniferae, represented by evergreen aromatic trees and shrubs indigenous to the south of Europe, western Asia, the Himalayas, China, Japan, north-western and north-eastern America, California and Mexico.
Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens A, Cone and branchlets.
Thuja gigantea of western North America is known in the United States as White (or Yellow) cedar, and the same name is applied to Cupressus Lawsoniana, the Port Orford or Oregon cedar, a native of the north-west States, and one of the most valuable juniper trees of North America.
Another species of cypress (Cupressus thyoides, also known as Chamaecyparis thyoides or sphaeroidea), found in swamps in the south of Ohio and Massachusetts, is known as the American white cedar.
A species of cypress, Cupressus lusitanica, which has been naturalized in the neighbourhood of Cintra is known as the cedar of Goa.
The trees most commonly found are the plane, poplar, maple, walnut, oak, the Cupressus funebris, and various varieties of the genera Pinus, Abies and Larix.
The soil is fertile, and the indigenous flora has been greatly enriched by the importation of such plants as the agave, the Mexican opuntia, the American maple, the Australian eucalyptus, the Scotch fir and the so-called Portuguese cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) from the Azores.
Thuja occidentalis is the Western or American arbor vitae, the Cupressus Arbor Vitae of old authors.
The common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), as found wild in the mountains of Crete and Cyprus, is characterized by long and spreading branches, which give it a cedar-like habit.
Artificially induced dwarfed plants of Pinus, Cupressus, Sciadopitys (umbrella pine) and other genera are commonly cultivated by the Japanese.
The name Retinospora, therefore, does not stand for a true genus, but denotes persistent young forms of Juniperus, Thuja, Cupressus, &c., in which the small scaly leaves of ordinary species are replaced by the slender, needle-like leaves, which stand out more or less at right angles from the branches.
The flat branchlets of Cupressus, Thuja (arbor vitae), Thujopsis dolabrata (Japanese arbor vitae) are characteristic of certain types of conifers; in some cases the horizontal extension of the branches induces a dorsiventral structure.
The needle-form represented by Pinus, Cedrus, Larix, &c., the linear flat or angular leaves, appressed to the branches, of Thuja, Cupressus, Libocedrus, &c. The flat and comparatively broad leaves of Araucaria imbricata, A.
An interesting case has been figured by Masters, in which scales of a cone of Cupressus Lawsoniana bear ovules on the upper surface and stamens on the lower face.
Taxus, Cupressus, &c.), or more usually Micro- (Pinus, Larix, &c.) it reaches maturity before the dehis- cence of the microsporangium.
In the Araucarian type of wood (Araucaria and Agathis) the bordered pits, which occur in two or three rows on the radial walls of the tracheids, are in mutual contact and polygonal in shape, the pits of the different rows are alternate and not on the same level; in this type of wood the annual rings are often much less distinct than in Cupressus, Pinus and other genera.
In the Mediterranean region occur Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus Pinea (stone pine), species of juniper, Cedrus atlantica, C. Libani, Callitris quadrivalvis, Pinus montana, &c. Several conifers of economic importance are abundant on the Atlantic side of North America - Juniperus virginiana (red cedar, used in the manufacture of lead pencils, and extending as far south as Florida), Taxodium distichum (swamp cypress), Pinus rigida (pitch pine), P. mitis (yellow pine), P. taeda,P. palustris, &c. On the west side of the American continent conifers play a still more striking role; among them are Chamaecyparis nutkaensis, Picea sitchensis, Libocedrus decurrens, Pseudotsuga Douglasii (Douglas fir), Sequoia sempervirens, S.
Gigantea (the only two surviving species of this generic type are now confined to a few localities in California, but were formerly widely spread in Europe and elsewhere), Pinus Coulteri, P. Lambertiana, &c. Farther south, a few representatives of such genera as Abies, Cupressus, Pinus and juniper are found in the Mexican Highlands, tropical America and the West Indies.
In the far East conifers are richly represented; among them occur Pinus densiflora,Cryptomeria japonica, Cephalotaxus, species of Abies, Larix, Thujopsis, Sciadopitys venticillata, Pseudolarix Kaempferi, &c. In the Himalaya occur Cedrus deodara, Taxus, species of Cupressus, Finns excelsa, Abies Webbiana, &c. The continent of Africa is singularly poor in conifers.
Many of the small female flowers borne on shoots with foliage of the Cupressus type consist of spirally disposed and not verticillate scales, e.g.
The Irish strata yield two ferns; 7 Gymnosperms, Cupressus, Cryptomeria, Taxus, Podocarpus, Pinus (2 species), Tsuga; and leaves of about 25 Dicotyledons.