The New Mosque (Jamaa-el-Jedid), dating from the 17th century, is in the form of a Greek cross, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small cupolas at the corners.
The frescoes on the cupola representing the vision of S.
The walls and ceiling of the fine Romanesque interior are covered with frescoes of 1570, subdued in colour and well suited to the character of the building; those of the octagonal cupola representing the Assumption of the Virgin are by Correggio, but much restored.
On the Neumarkt is the Frauenkirche, with a stone cupola rising to the height of 311 ft.; close to the Altmarkt, the Kreuzkirche, rebuilt after destruction by fire in 1897, also with a lofty tower surmounted by a cupola; and near the Postplatz the Sophienkirche, with twin spires.
The cupola of the church in the fortress is 2455 ft.
In the United States the cupola has undergone a radical modification in being built of water-jacketed sections.
Internally it is a polygon of sixteen unequal sides, and the cupola is supported by sixteen ribs, springing from the same number of columns.
The mosaic representing Christ surrounded by the four-and-twenty elders," which originally lined the cupola, had almost entirely perished by the 19th century, but was restored in 1882 from a copy made in the 17th century.
In the middle of the market-place stands the old town hall, with red tower and cupola, known from its situation as the Mid Steeple, built by Tobias Bachup of Alloa (1708).
This noble pile, with a large and handsome dome, a secondary cupola over the altar, and a striking portal and flight of steps, occupies one of the most conspicuous sites in Venice on the point of land that separates the mouth of the Guidecca from the Grand Canal.
Above the shaft comes the arcaded bell-chamber, frequently built of Istrian stone; and above that again the attic, either round or square or octagonal, carrying either a cone or a pyramid or a cupola, sometimes surmounted by a cross or a gilded angel which serves as a weathercock.
The duties of the other viziers were limited to attending the divan; they were called kubbe or cupola viziers from the fact that the council met under a cupola; they were pashas with three horse-tails, and were attended by large retinues, having generally achieved distinction as beylerbeys.
It is a huge ornate building with minarets and a lofty cupola faced with shining blue tiles.
On this square stands the Frauenkirche, the cathedral church of the archbishop of Munich-Freising, with its lofty cupola capped towers dominating the whole town.
Their first church was in Broad Street, nearly opposite the present First Presbyterian Church, with cupola and flankers from which "watchers" and "wards" might discover the approach of hostile Indians, and as an honour to their pastor, Rev. Abraham Pierson (1608-1678), who came from Newark-on-Trent, they gave the town its present name, having called it Milford upon their first settlement.
The golden cupola of the four-storeyed campanile is visible for many miles across the steppes.
The great shanb (cupola or dome) and other buildings erected by Ghazan have also disappeared.
These late honours he did not long enjoy; in 1695 he died whilst about to commence work on the cupola of the Invalides.
There is a fifth cupola above the crossing.
The city is the see of Protestant Episcopal and 1 The cathedral is the centre of the city according to the charter, which describes the city as including "six miles square, of which the sides shall be equi-distant from what is known as the cupola of the cathedral of San Fernando and three miles therefrom."
In height, built in the form of a cone, with a small cupola, on the top of which is a gilt ball and spire, and contains the shrine of Badrinath, dedicated to an incarnation of Vishnu.
In the very earliest submarines a cupola was built on the top of the hull, which was kept just above the surface when it was desired to take observations.
An optical tube replaced this cupola in the "Gustave Zede," and comprised a short tube (on top of the submarine) with a lens to close the top end, which was kept just above the surface when running submerged.
With a glass cupola; it is roofed with glass throughout, and is 320 yds.
Grey iron castings are made by remelting the pig iron either in a small shaft of " cupola " furnace, or in a reverberatory or " air " furnace, with very little change of chemical composition, and then casting it directly into suitable moulds, usually of either " baked," i.e.
Should several furnaces simultaneously make iron too rich in silicon, this may be diluted by pouring into the mixer some low-silicon iron melted for this purpose in a cupola furnace.
The melting can be done much more cheaply in a cupola or open-hearth furnace, and the first part of the purification much more cheaply in a Bessemer converter or open-hearth furnace.
In a very few places the molten cast iron as it issues from the blast furnace is cast directly in these moulds, but in general it is allowed to solidify in pigs, and then remelted either in cupola furnaces or in air furnaces.
Of the two the cupola is very much the more economical of fuel, thanks to the direct transfer of„ heat from the burning coke to the pig iron with which it is in contact.
- Cupola Furnace for Remelting cast iron of the Pig Iron.
- Cast iron naturally has a high carbon-content, usually between 3 and 4%, because while molten it absorbs carbon greedily from the coke with which it is in contact in the iron blast furnace in which it is made, and in the cupola furnace in which it is remelted for making most castings.
Where the operation is simply one of fusion, as in the ironfounder's cupola, in which there is no very great change in volume in the materials on their descent to the tuyeres, the stack is nearly or quite straight-sided; but when, as is the case with the smelting of iron ores with limestone flux, a large proportion of volatile matter has to be removed in the process, a wall of varying inclination is used, so that the body of the furnace is formed of two dissimilar truncated cones, joined by their bases, the lower one passing downwards into a short, nearly cylindrical, position.
Originally the term cupola was used for the reverberatory furnace, but in the course of time it has changed its meaning, and is now given to a small blast furnace such as that used by iron-founders - reverberatory smelting furnaces in the same trade being called air furnaces.
Mostaufi describes a great cupola of finely worked stone still standing by a court over a hundred yards square (1340).
Among its seven churches the Roman Catholic parish church, with a curious cupola and containing numerous old tombs and effigies, and that of the Holy Ghost (r5th century), are remarkable.
Eggert in the Florentine Renaissance style, was built in 1889-1893; it is crowned by a cupola 115 ft.
The Icelandic volcanoes may be divided into three classes: (I) cone-shaped, like Vesuvius, built up of alternate layers of ashes, scoriae and lava; (2) cupola-shaped, with an easy slope and a vast crater opening at the top - these shield-shaped cupolas are composed entirely of layers of lava, and their inclination is seldom steeper than 7°-8°; (3) chains of craters running close alongside a fissure in the ground.
It is noteworthy for a splendid ruined mosque built by the Seljuk, Isa Bey II., of Aidin, in 13 7 5, which contains magnificent columns: for a castle, near which lie remains of the pendentives from the cupola of the great cathedral of St John, now deeply buried in its own ruins: and for an aqueduct, Turkish baths and mosque-tombs.
To-day more than eight-tenths of the copper ores of the world are reduced to impure copper bars or to fine copper at the mines; and where the character of the ore permits, the cupola furnace is found more economical in both fuel and labour than the reverberatory.
In America the usual method is to roast ores or concentrates so that the matte yielded by either the reverberatory or cupola furnace will run from 45 to 50% in copper, and then to transfer to the Bessemer converter, which blows it up to 99%.
In Butte, Montana, reverberatories have in the past been preferred to cupola furnaces, as the charge has consisted mainly of fine roasted concentrates; but the cupola is gaining ground there.
The home of cupola smelting was Germany, where it has never ceased to make steady progress.