It was this very collection, it would appear, which found its way to Cumae and from Cumae to Rome.
The island was perhaps occupied by Greek settlers even before Cumae; its Eretrian and Chalcidian inhabitants abandoned it about Soo B.C. owing to an eruption, and it is said to have been deserted almost at once by the greater part of the garrison which Hiero I.
The potter's clay of Ischia served for the potteries of Cumae and Puteoli in ancient times, and was indeed in considerable demand until the catastrophe at Casamicciola in 1883.
Monte Barbaro (Gaurus), north-east of the site of Cumae, Monte San Nicola (Epomeus), 2589 ft.
Other roads ran south from Capua to Cumae, Puteoli (the most important harbour of Campania), and Neapolis, which could also be reached by a coast road from Minturnae on the Via Appia.
Until the end of the Republic it was dependent on Cumae, and was a favourite villa resort.
Roads ran north to Baiae and north-west past the modern Torre Gaveta to Cumae: along the line of both are numerous columbaria.
LITERNUM, an ancient town of Campania, Italy, on the low sandy coast between Cumae and the mouth of the Volturnus.
Hannibal made a pilgrimage to it in 214 B.C. Agrippa in 37 B.C. converted it into a naval harbour, the Portus Iulius; joining it to the Lacus Lucrinus by a canal, and connecting the latter with the sea, he reduced the distance to Cumae by boring a tunnel over 2 m.
This, which is the only form of the earliest period at Cumae, where it is also found more rounded 5, is the origin of the Latin S and its descendants.
He appeared also as a Hellenic champion in the defence of Cumae against the Etruscans, and he attempted after the victory to found a Syracusan colony on the island of Aenaria, now Ischia.
Zancle was first founded, no doubt on the site of an earlier settlement, by pirates from Cumae, and again more regularly settled, after an unknown interval, by settlers from Cumae under Perieres, and from Chalcis under Crataemenes, in the first quarter of the 8th century B.C. Mylae must have been occupied as an outpost very soon afterwards, but the first regular colony of Zancle was Himera, founded in 648 B.C. After the capture of Miletus by the Persians in 494 B.C. Skythes, king of Zancle, invited the Ionians to come and settle at KaXrt 'AKT), then in the occupation of the Sicels (the modern Marina di Caronia, 25 m.
1 The trade for a long time was chiefly in the hands of the Euboeans; and Cyme (Cumae) in Campania was founded in the 8th century B.C., when the Euboean Cyme was still a great city.
Whatever may be their origin - and they came from Cumae - they were placed in the Capitoline temple under the care of a special commission of two (duoviri sacris faciundis, later decemviri and quindecimviri), and their "oracles," which were referred to in times of great national stress, recommended the introduction of foreign cults.
The statement made by Stephanus of Byzantium and Jerome, that the city was founded under the name of Dicaearchia by a colony of Samians about 520 B.C., is probably correct, for, though in the territory of Cumae, it does not appear to have been occupied previous to 520, Misenum having been the original port of Cumae.
On the other hand, Cumae probably extended her supremacy over it not long after.
Cicero had a house in Puteoli itself, and a villa on the edge of the Lucrine lake (which, though nearer to Puteoli, was in the territory of Cumae), and many prominent men of the republic possessed country houses in the neighbourhood of Puteoli (see Baiae; Avernus Lacus; Lucrinus Lacus; Misenum).
Both cities were Ionian settlements from Attica, and their importance in early times is shown by their numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae, Rhegium and Naxos, and on the coast of Macedonia, the projecting portion of which, with its three peninsulas, hence obtained the name of Chalcidice.
Its foundation was ascribed by Greek tradition to Heracles, in common with the neighbouring city of Herculaneum, but it is certain that it was not a Greek colony, in the proper sense of the term, as we know to have been the case with the more important cities of Cumae and Neapolis.
Gabrici's extensive researches at Cumae were published in 1913.
The anonymous author of the Cohortatio ad Graecos, a work of the 2nd century, visited the remnants of those cells, in which - so legend related the seventy interpreters laboured on their version of the Old Testament: nor, when he came to Cumae in Campania, did he fail to have shown him the old shrine of the Sibyl (Coh.
This has been remedied by a system of sewers, which after passing by a tunnel through the hill of Posilipo cross the plain beyond and discharge their contents into the open sea on the deserted coast of Cumae, 17 m.
The earliest Greek settlement in the neighbourhood was at Pithecusa (Ischia), but the colonists, being driven out of the island by the frequent earthquakes, settled on the mainland at Cumae, where they found a natural acropolis of great strategic value.
From Cumae they colonized Dikearchia (Pozzuoli) and probably subsequently Palaeopolis.
Parthenope, as well as Dikearchia, was formed as a new colony from Cumae, and was so called from a legendary connexion of the locality with the siren of that name, whose tomb was still shown in the time of Strabo.