The greater part of the district consists of state land, the cultivators being tenants of government, but there is a certain amount of hereditary freehold.
The vilayet suffered severely during the Russian occupation of 1878, when, apart from the natural dislocation of commerce, many of the Moslem cultivators emigrated to Asia Minor, to be free from their alien rulers.
The worst governed part of the peninsula was the south, where feudalism lay heavily on the cultivators and corruption pervaded all ranks.
Thus the cultivators, whether noble or peasant, have not profited much from the change in their economic circumstances brought about by the social emancipation of 1861.
Under them the cultivators are by British arrangements placed in the position of peasant proprietors.
In 1900, at York, the competitions were concerned with horse-power cultivators, self-moving steam diggers, milking machines and sheep-shearing machines (power and hand).
Harrows and cultivators are used where there are few weeds, and the mulching process is the one desired.
The cultivators, whether owners of the plantations, as is usual in some districts, or tenants, as is customary in others, are financed as a rule by commission agents.
On the whole agriculture is backward, despite the richness of the soil; for the cultivators are a very conservative race, and prefer the methods and implements of their ancestors.
It is bound to purchase all tobacco not exported at prices to be agreed between itself and the cultivators; if no agreement can be arrived at, the price is fixed by experts.
It is obliged also to form entrepots for the storage of the crops at reasonable distances from each other, and, on certain conditions, to grant advances to cultivators to aid them in raising the leaf.
The cultivators, on the other hand, may not plant tobacco without permits from the regie, although the power of refusing a permit, except to known smugglers or persons of notoriously bad conduct, seems to be doubtful; nor may they sell to any purchaser, unless for export, except to the regie, while they are bound to deposit the whole of the tobacco crops which they raise in any one year in the entrepots of the regie before the month of August of the year following, [[Table A]].-Showing Revenues ceded to Ottoman Public Debt Administration at Various Periods to 1907-1908.
It was especially cultivated near Hinton in Cambridgeshire and in Essex at Saffron Walden, its cultivators being called "crokers."
Most of the ardent cultivators of this science in Germany in the next generation were his pupils.
In Burma the cultivators themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of their holdings averages about five acres.
- The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but many cultivators are also artisans in the byseason.
In India at the present day there are thousands of small mills worked by hand, through which extraction the peasant cultivators pass their canes two or three at a time, squeezing them a little, and extracting per haps a fourth of their weight in juice, from which they make a substance resembling a dirty sweetmeat rather than sugar.
But the importation of foreignsugar, cheapened by foreign state aid to a price which materially reduced the fair and reasonable profit of native cultivators, was a state of things the Indian government could not accept.
During this period, until the plants begin to ripen, the tilth is maintained and weeds checked first by horse cultivators or horsehoes, and, as the plants increase in size, by hand labour.
As workers in metals and as potters they displayed infinite variety of design, while as cultivators and engineers they excelled their European conquerors.
The cultivators consist of two classes - the resident husbandmen (thani) and the nonresident or migratory husbandmen (pahe).
The principal tribes inhabiting the district are: (1) Waziri Pathans, recent immigrants from the hills, for the most part peaceable and good cultivators; (2) Marwats, a Pathan race, inhabiting the lower and more sandy portions of the Bannu valley; (3) Bannuchis, a mongrel Afghan tribe of bad physique and mean vices.
Thousands of cultivators who had emigrated across the Wardha to the peshwa's dominions, in order to escape the ruinous fiscal system of the nizam's government, now returned; the American Civil War gave an immense stimulus to the cotton trade; the laying of a line of railway across the province provided yet further employment, and the people rapidly became prosperous and contented.
Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, and the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order.
Though able and intelligent cultivators they do not take kindly to any form of labour other than agricultural, with the result that most of the industries and trades of the country are in the hands of Chinese.
They lay mingled with other natural stones, some of which bore the marks of having been burned by Indian fires, and some by the sun, and also bits of pottery and glass brought hither by the recent cultivators of the soil.