The cultivators are still, for the most part, tenantsat-will, rack-rented and debt-ridden.
The greater part of the district consists of state land, the cultivators being tenants of government, but there is a certain amount of hereditary freehold.
The vilayet suffered severely during the Russian occupation of 1878, when, apart from the natural dislocation of commerce, many of the Moslem cultivators emigrated to Asia Minor, to be free from their alien rulers.
The worst governed part of the peninsula was the south, where feudalism lay heavily on the cultivators and corruption pervaded all ranks.
Thus the cultivators, whether noble or peasant, have not profited much from the change in their economic circumstances brought about by the social emancipation of 1861.
Under them the cultivators are by British arrangements placed in the position of peasant proprietors.
In 1900, at York, the competitions were concerned with horse-power cultivators, self-moving steam diggers, milking machines and sheep-shearing machines (power and hand).
Harrows and cultivators are used where there are few weeds, and the mulching process is the one desired.
The cultivators, whether owners of the plantations, as is usual in some districts, or tenants, as is customary in others, are financed as a rule by commission agents.
On the whole agriculture is backward, despite the richness of the soil; for the cultivators are a very conservative race, and prefer the methods and implements of their ancestors.
It is obliged also to form entrepots for the storage of the crops at reasonable distances from each other, and, on certain conditions, to grant advances to cultivators to aid them in raising the leaf.
The cultivators, on the other hand, may not plant tobacco without permits from the regie, although the power of refusing a permit, except to known smugglers or persons of notoriously bad conduct, seems to be doubtful; nor may they sell to any purchaser, unless for export, except to the regie, while they are bound to deposit the whole of the tobacco crops which they raise in any one year in the entrepots of the regie before the month of August of the year following, [[Table A]].-Showing Revenues ceded to Ottoman Public Debt Administration at Various Periods to 1907-1908.
It was especially cultivated near Hinton in Cambridgeshire and in Essex at Saffron Walden, its cultivators being called "crokers."
Most of the ardent cultivators of this science in Germany in the next generation were his pupils.
In Burma the cultivators themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of their holdings averages about five acres.
- The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but many cultivators are also artisans in the byseason.
In India at the present day there are thousands of small mills worked by hand, through which extraction the peasant cultivators pass their canes two or three at a time, squeezing them a little, and extracting per haps a fourth of their weight in juice, from which they make a substance resembling a dirty sweetmeat rather than sugar.
But the importation of foreignsugar, cheapened by foreign state aid to a price which materially reduced the fair and reasonable profit of native cultivators, was a state of things the Indian government could not accept.
During this period, until the plants begin to ripen, the tilth is maintained and weeds checked first by horse cultivators or horsehoes, and, as the plants increase in size, by hand labour.
As workers in metals and as potters they displayed infinite variety of design, while as cultivators and engineers they excelled their European conquerors.
The cultivators consist of two classes - the resident husbandmen (thani) and the nonresident or migratory husbandmen (pahe).
The principal tribes inhabiting the district are: (1) Waziri Pathans, recent immigrants from the hills, for the most part peaceable and good cultivators; (2) Marwats, a Pathan race, inhabiting the lower and more sandy portions of the Bannu valley; (3) Bannuchis, a mongrel Afghan tribe of bad physique and mean vices.
Thousands of cultivators who had emigrated across the Wardha to the peshwa's dominions, in order to escape the ruinous fiscal system of the nizam's government, now returned; the American Civil War gave an immense stimulus to the cotton trade; the laying of a line of railway across the province provided yet further employment, and the people rapidly became prosperous and contented.
Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, and the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order.
Though able and intelligent cultivators they do not take kindly to any form of labour other than agricultural, with the result that most of the industries and trades of the country are in the hands of Chinese.
Primitive methods obtain, but the Siamese are efficient cultivators and secure good harvests nevertheless.
The Chaldaeans, Egyptians and Greeks were the early cultivators of science, and botany was not neglected, although the study of it was mixed up with crude speculations as to vegetable life, and as to the change of plants into animals.
The native cultivators were to be exempted from the ground-tax, but were to cultivate one-fifth of their land as the government might direct, the government taking the produce.
Here are found members of the different Indian nations, originally slaves; Arabs, who are principally engaged in navigation, but also trade in gold and precious stones; Javanese, who are cultivators; and Malays, chiefly boatmen and sailors, and adherents of Mahommedanism.
Krabe of Prummern near Aachen, the most scientific and practical of German cultivators, the results of whose experiments have been published in his admirable Lehrbuch der rationellen Weidenkultur (Aix-la-Chapelle, 1886, et seq.) went so far as to assert that willows prefer a dry to a wet soil.
P. Ellmore of Leicester, the most experienced and enterprising of Midland cultivators, preferred to plant his sets in squares, 18 to 20 in.
From 1850 onwards French cultivators were compelled, in order to keep up their silk supply, to import graine from uninfected districts.
In 1867 de Quatrefages estimated the loss suffered by France in the 13 years following 1853, from decreased production of silk and price paid to foreign cultivators for graine, to be not less than one milliard of francs.
The cultivators p g) y' make two principal C, spikelet of B (enlarged).
Raiffeisen devoted himself to the improvement of the social condition of the cultivators of the soil, and did good work in the planning of public roads and in other ways.
It any state most plants feed greedily upon it, and when pure or free from decaying wood or sticks it is a very safe ingredient in composts; but it is so liable to generate fungus, and the mycelium or spawn of certain fungi is so injurious to the roots of trees, attacking them if at all sickly or weakened by drought, that many cultivators prefer not' to mix leaf-mould with the soil used for permanent plants, as peaches or choice ornamental trees.
Annual engagements are entered into by the cultivators, under a system of pecuniary advances, to sow a certain quantity of land with poppy, and the whole produce in the form of opium is delivered to government at a fixed rate.
Many of them gradually sank into a not wholly unwilling subjection as cultivators of the soil under Greek masters.
It was only after long inquiry amongst local cultivators and landowners that, about 2 m.
Both the veterans, who soon wasted what they had acquired, and the dispossessed cultivators joined the partisans of Catiline, and Manlius, one of his supporters, made his headquarters at Faesulae.
The cultivators, including landowners, tenants, hired labourers and slaves, represent the working population of the country, and as industrious and successful agriculturists they are unsurpassed in Asia.
But no detailed record of tenant-right was inserted in the settlement papers, and, as a matter of fact, the cultivators lost rather than gained in security of tenure.
That in areas where the State takes the land revenue from the cultivators, the proposal to fix the assessment at one-fifth of the gross produce would result in the imposition of a greatly increased burden upon the people.
The plant is universally grown by the cultivators for their own smoking, and, like everything else, was subject to taxation under native rule; but the impossibility of accurate excise supervision has caused the British government to abandon the impost.
The organized village community contains many other members besides the cultivators; but they all exist for his benefit, and all alike are directly maintained from the produce of the village fields.
Everywhere the same perpetual assiduity is found, but the inherited experience of generations has taught the cultivators to adapt their simple methods to differing circumstances.
But while the cotton famine was at its height, the cultivators were intelligent enough to make the most of their opportunity.
The crop was a record one, but the demand far exceeded the supply, the cultivators reaped profits of eight millions more than the previous year, and 2000 new looms were set up in Calcutta.
Abolish the moneylender, and the general body of cultivators would have nothing to depend upon but the harvest of a single year.
In those districts where the staples of export are largely grown, the cultivators commonly sell their crops to travelling brokers, who re-sell to larger dealers, and so on until the commodities reach the hands of the agents of the great shipping houses.
With regard to the land revenue, the essence of his procedure was to fix the amount which the cultivators should pay at one-third of the gross produce, leaving it to their option to pay in money or in kind.
In all operations the greatest care is taken, and the cultivators being peculiarly favoured as to soil, climate and water, Courtrai flax is a staple of unapproached excellence.
Subsequently, under Lord Auckland, a further supply of Chinese cultivators and manufacturers was obtained - men well acquainted with the processes necessary for the production of green tea, as the former set were with those requisite for black.
The underlying fact which made the trek possible is that the Dutchdescended colonists in the eastern and north-eastern parts of the colony were not cultivators of the soil, but of purely pastoral and nomad habits, ever ready to seek new pastures for their flocks and herds, and possessing no special affection for any particular locality.
The town dates from 1688, when a church was built for a colony of tobacco cultivators of the neighbourhood.
Already by the end of the 12th century the lyric poetry of the troubadours had found cultivators in Portugal, and a few compositions which have come down to us bear a date slightly anterior to the year 1200.
Satirical verse had two notable cultivators in D.
The art of letter-writing had cultivators in Abbade Costa, Ribeiro Sanches, physician of Catherine II.
Any one may undertake the industry,, but cultivators are obliged to sell the opium exclusively to the government agent at a price fixed beforehand by the latter, which,.
Even such a necessary measure as that of moving cultivators to the rich soil of the south was thwarted by the adherence of the northern peasantry to the glebe.
It is bound to purchase all tobacco not exported at prices to be agreed between itself and the cultivators; if no agreement can be arrived at, the price is fixed by experts.