The only doubt arises from the existence of insect remains, referred to the order Coleoptera, in the Silesian Culm of Steinkunzendorf near Reichenbach.
The cost of filling has been greatly reduced by the system of flushing culm, sand, gravel and similar material, through pipes leading from the surface into mine workings.
Mine fires may sometimes be reached by bore-holes sunk for the purpose from the surface, and the burning workings below filled by flushing with culm and water.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
This comprised dark shales, with grits and thin limestones and thin, impure coals, locally called " culm " (q.v.).
These geologists appropriated the term " culm " for the whole of this facies in the west of England, and subsequently traced the same type on the European continent, where it is widely developed in the western centre.
This unconformity is generally found about the same horizon in the continental Culm areas, and it occurs again in the western part of the English Culm.
Thick; in the Ural mountains it is over 4500 ft.; the Culm in Moravia is credited with the enormous thickness of over 42,000 ft.
Radiolaria are found in cherts in the Culm of Devonshire and Cornwall, in Russia, Germany and elsewhere.
Sediments approaching to the culm type, with similar flora and fauna, were deposited in synclinal hollows in parts of France and Spain.
Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
In spite of the bulk of the evidence being in favour of geniality of climate, it is necessary to observe that certain deposits have been recognized as glacial; in the culm of the Frankenwald, in the coal basins of central France, and in central England, certain conglomeratic beds have been assigned, somewhat doubtfully, to this origin.
The principal exports are corn and other agricultural produce; the imports are coal, culm, timber and slate.
The Lower Carboniferous, which belongs to the " Culm " facies so widely spread in central Europe, occupies a wide area in southern Portugal; but the Upper Carboniferous is very restricted in extent, and occurs in small basins like those of the Central Plateau of France, resting unconformably upon the rocks below.
In wheat, barley and most of the British native grasses they are a development, not of the culm, but of the base of the leaf-sheath.
The function of the nodes is to raise again culms which have become bent down; they are composed of highly turgescent tissue, the cells of which elongate on the side next the earth when the culm is placed in a horizontal or oblique position, and thus raise the culm again to an erect position.
In grasses of temperate climates branching is rare at the upper nodes of the culm, but it is characteristic of the bamboos and many tropical grasses.
The sheath is often of great length, and generally completely surrounds the culm, forming a firm protection for the internode, the younger basal portion of which, including the zone of growth, remains tender for some time.
Short spikes may fall from the culm as a whole; or the axis of a spike or raceme is jointed so that one spikelet falls with each joint as in many Andropogoneae and Hordeae.
Culm herbaceous, annual; leaf-blade sessile, and not jointed to the sheath.
Culm woody, at any rate at the base, leaf-blade jointed to the sheath, often with a short, slender petiole.
Amphicarpum, native in the southeastern United States, has fertile cleistogamous spikelets on filiform runners at the base of the culm, those on the terminal panicle are sterile.
Metalliferous veins are common, amongst the best-known being the silver-bearing lead veins of Klausthal, which occur in the Culm or Lower Carboniferous.
Cladiscothallus, from the Culm of Russia, in which the filaments are united to form hemispherical or globular tufts, has been compared by Renault to a Chaetophora.
In the Lower Carboniferous (Culm of Continental authors) many Devonian types survive - e.g.
In New South Wales, for example, we have such genera as Rhacopteris and Lepidodendron represented by species very similar to those recorded from Lower Carboniferous or Culm rocks in Germany, Austria, England, Spitzbergen, North and South America and elsewhere.
It is, in short, clear that the Culm flora, as we know it in the northern hemisphere, existed in the extreme south, and it is probable that during the earlier part of the Carboniferous period the vegetation of the world was uniform in character.
We may possibly go a step farther, and assume that the climatic conditions under which the Culm plants of the Arctic regions flourished were not very different from those which prevailed in Europe, Asia, Chile and South Australia.
While a few similar or even identical types may be recognized in both floras, there can be no doubt that, during a considerable period subsequent to that represented by the Lower Carboniferous or Culm rocks, there existed two distinct floras, one of which had its headquarters in the northern hemisphere, while the other flourished in a vast continental area in the south.