With the crystallization of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief.
Rend., 1904 seq.) by fractional crystallization of the nickel double nitrates, the ethyl sulphates, and the bismuth double nitrates of the terbium earths.
Rosenkranz, who in his work Hegel's Naturphilosophie seeks to develop Hegel's idea of an earthorganism in the light of modern science, recognizing in crystallization the morphological element.
It is often taught that gneisses are the further stages of the crystallization of schists and belong to a deeper zone where the pressures and the temperatures were greater.
The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
All these are strikingly alike in appearance and general characters, differing essentially only in chemical composition, and it would seem better to reserve the name cerargyrite for the whole group, using the names chlorargyrite (AgC1), embolite (Ag(Cl, Bl)), bromargyrite (AgBr) and iodembolite (Ag(C1, Br, I)) for the different isomorphous members of the group. They are cubic in crystallization, with the cube and the octahedron as prominent forms, but crystals are small and usually indistinct; there is no cleavage.
In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
By this method it is shown that water, when present as " water of crystallization," behaves as if it were ice.
Lehmann it melts at 168° (or at a slightly lower temperature in its water of crystallization) and on cooling forms optically isotropic crystals; at 125.6° the mass becomes doubly refracting, and from a solution rhombohedral (optically uniaxial) crystals are deposited; by further cooling acicular rhombic crystals are produced at 82.8°, and at 32.4° other rhombic forms are obtained, identical with the product obtained by crystallizing at ordinary temperatures.
The inactive mixture may be resolved into its active components by fractional crystallization of the cinchonine salt, when the salt of the dextro modification separates first; or the ammonium salt may be fermented by Penicillium glaucum, when the laevo form is destroyed and the dextro form remains untouched; on the other' hand, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus destroys the dextro form, but does not touch the laevo form.
The heat at which the syrup boils in the clarifiers, 220° F., has the property of separating a great deal of the gum still remaining in it, and thus cleansing the solution of sugar and water for crystallization in the vacuum pans; and if after skimming the syrup is run into separators or subsiders of any description, and allowed to settle down and cool before being drawn into the vacuum pan for crystallization, this cleansing process will be more thorough and the quality of the final product will be improved.
When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
The corresponding changes in the case of the mixture Tuvw are easily understood - the first halt at U, due to the crystallization of pure B, will probably occur at a different temperature, but the second halt, due to the simultaneous crystallization of A and B, will always occur at the same temperature whatever the composition of the mixture.
The region PbEeE' contains all the alloys that commence their solidification by the crystallization of lead; similarly, the other two regions correspond to the initial crystallization of bismuth and tin respectively; these areas are the projections of the three sheets of the freezing-point surface.
Gaston Paris, belongs to the very earliest stage of Arthurian tradition, long antedating the crystallization of such tradition into literary form.
The salt melts in its water of crystallization at 75°, and the liquid thus obtained goes up to a density of 3.6.
It crystallizes in prisms, which lose their water of crystallization at 160° C. The tellurates of the alkali metals are more or less soluble in water, those of the other metals being very sparingly or almost insoluble in water.
The caesium and rubidium are separated from this by repeated fractional crystallization of their double platinum chlorides, which are much less soluble in water than those of the other alkali metals (R.
The filtrate on cooling deposits crystals of potassium zirconofluoride, K 2 ZrF 6, which are purified by crystallization from hot water.
Glauber's salt readily forms supersaturated solutions, in which crystallization takes place suddenly when a crystal of the salt is thrown in; the same effect is obtained by exposure to the air or by touching the solution with a glass rod.
Cleavage is thus a superinduced structure, and its explanation is to be found in the rearrangement of the minerals, and the development of a certain degree of crystallization by pressure acting on the rock.
By advancing crystallization and increased size of their components, slates pass gradually into phyllites, which consist also of quartz, muscovite and chlorite.
Chemie, 1885, 6, 477) into two components (known respectively as neodymium and praseodymium) by repeated fractional crystallization of the double nitrate of ammonium and didymium in nitric acid.
This figure afforded, as it were, a new point of crystallization for the existing Gnostic ideas, which now grouped themselves round this point in all their manifold diversity.
By crystallization from alcohol it is obtained as colourless needles, melting at 115°.
This frame, so slightly clad, was a sort of crystallization around me, and reacted on the builder.