Bowman (1900); Cromwell's Jewish Intelligencies (1891), Crypto-Jews under the Commonwealth (1894), Menasseh Ben Israel's Mission to Oliver Cromwell (1901), by L.
In Spain and North Africa persecution created that strange and significant phenomenon Maranism or crypto-Judaism, a public acceptance of Islam or Christianity combined with a private fidelity to the rites of Judaism.
This last was a formula issued on the 25th of June 1580 (the jubilee of the Augsburg Confession) by the Lutheran Church in an attempt to heal the breach which, since the death of Luther, had been widening between the extreme Lutherans and the Crypto-Calvinists.
The charge of heathenism we find in Suidas is probable enough; that is to say, Tribonian may well have been a crypto-pagan, like many other eminent courtiers and litterateurs of the time (including Procopius himself), a person who, while professing Christianity, was at least indifferent to its dogmas and rites, cherishing a sentimental recollection of the older and more glorious days of the empire.
1659), a Portuguese Marano or Crypto-Jew, who came to England in the reign of Charles I.
Against Crypto-Calvinists he upheld the Lutheran view of the eucharist in his Repetitio sanae doctrinae de Vera Praesentia (1560; in German, 1561).
Cases of crypto-Mahommedanism continued to come before the Inquisition till the 18th century.
At Wittenberg the crypto-Calvinist controversy was then at its height, and he took the side of Melanchthon and the crypto-Calvinists.
The duke of Saxe-Weimar was made regent, and continued the persecution of crypto-Calvinism.
Whereupon the more rigid Lutherans accused their brethren of Crypto-Calvinism, and began controversies which dealt with that charge and with a defence of the idea of ubiquity.
Later, the Variata of 1540 became the creed of the lVlelanchthonians and even of the Crypto-calvinists; so the framers of the Formula of Concord, promulgated in 1580, returned to the text handed in at the Diet.
But against these considerations it might be urged that a Protestant had no occasion to boast of a harmony most natural to him, while his further remark to the effect that a state church is indispensable, and that those who cannot belong to it on conscientious grounds ought to leave the country rather than show any opposition to its rites, seems rather to indicate the crypto-Catholic. The same conclusion is supported by the fact that Stevinus, a year before his death, bequeathed a pious legacy to the church of Westkerke in Flanders out of the revenues of which masses were to be said.
There were also a good many crypto-pagans among the educated population of the capital.
The form of Lutheranism taught in electoral Saxony was that of Melanchthon, and many of its teachers and adherents, who were afterwards called Crypto-Calvinists, were favoured by the elector.
When Augustus, freed from the fear of an attack by the Ernestines, became gradually estranged from the elector palatine and the Calvinists, he seemed to have looked with suspicion upon the Crypto-Calvinists, who did not preach the pure doctrines of Luther.
Augustus ordered the leaders of the Crypto-Calvinists to be seized, and they were tortured and imprisoned.
The aristocratic classes loudly complained that the young king, Gustavus IV., Gustavus still a minor, was being brought up among crypto IV., 1792- Jacobins; while the middle classes, deprived of 1809.
From this last post he was removed in December 1570 as a Crypto-Calvinist.
It is said that the amir Beshir, who succeeded about 1786, was himself a crypto-Christian.
IrXivOos, a tile), in petrology, a dark grey or dark brown crypto-crystalline substance which has an almost vitreous lustre, and when pure appears structureless to the unaided eye.