The actual position of sea-level lies so near the summit of the crust-heap that the varied relief of the upper portion leads to the formation of a complicated coast- The con- line and a great number of detached portions of land.
The retort is pear-shaped, and holds1000-1500lb of charge, consisting of liquated crust mixed with 1-3% of charcoal.
In the Red Sea the " Pola " expedition discovered a calcareous .00ze similar to that of the Mediterranean, and the formation of a stony crust by precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates may be recognized as giving origin to a recent dolomite.
The fundamental basis of geography is the vertical relief of the earth's crust, which controls all mobile distributions.
Geologically, Syria belongs to two distinct regions of the earth's crust, the northern and smaller portion lying within the great belt of folding of southern Europe and central Asia, and the southern and larger portion belonging to the Indo-African area, which, though often faulted, is usually free from crumpling.
In skimming the crust from the surface of the lead some unalloyed lead is also drawn off, and has to be separated by an additional operation (liquation), as, running lower in silver than the crust, it would otherwise reduce its silver content and increase the amount of lead to be cupelled.
In these respects they contrast with the great oceans which owe their origin to the most extensive and the profoundest depressions of the crust, date back at least to Mesozoic times, and have perhaps remained permanently in their present position from still remoter ages.
Recent pendulum observations have shown that it is incorrect to assume a uniform density of 2.6 in the elevated part of the earth's crust, that on the contrary there are great local differences in density, the most important being a confirmation of Airy's discovery that there is a marked deficiency of mass under high mountains and a marked excess under the bed of the ocean.
The distinctive task of geography as a science is to investigate the control exercised by the crust-forms directly or indirectly upon the various mobile distributions.
The primary distinction of the forms of the crust is that between elevations and depressions.
So far only is it possible to speak with certainty, but it is permissible to take a few steps into the twilight of dawning knowledge and indicate the chief subdivisions which are likely to be established in the great crust-hollow and the great crust-heap. The boundary between these should obviously be the mean surface of the sphere.
Second great series of crust waves from north to south, giving rise by their interference to six great elevated masses (the continents), arranged in three groups, each consisting of a northern and a southern member separated by a minor depression.
This theory of crust blocks dropped by subsidence is opposed to Lapworth's theory of vast crust-folds, but geology is the science which has to decide between them.
The common monoclinic variety is obtained by allowing a crust to form over molten sulphur by partially cooling it, and then breaking the crust and pouring off the still liquid portion, whereupon the interior of the vessel will be found coated with long needles of this variety.
Many of them are fault block mountains, the crust having been broken and the blocks tilted so that there is a steep face on one side and a gentle slope on the other.
This is a region of innumerable faulted crust blocks, the elevated ones creating the N.
Many of the freshwater algae which form a mere crust, such as Palmella cruenta, may be placed in a vessel of water, where after a time they float like a scum, the earthy matter settling down to the bottom, and may then be mounted by slipping a piece of mica under them and allowing it to dry.
A few shallow salt lakes are filled by rain water, but they dry up on the setting in of the hot weather, leaving a thick crust of salt on their beds, which is used for commercial and domestic purposes.
During the winter the smaller tributaries freeze to the bottom, and about 1st January Lake Baikal becomes covered with a solid crust of ice capable of bearing files of loaded sledges.
Of zinc, all the gold and copper and some silver and lead will be alloyed with the zinc to a so-called gold - or copper - crust, and the residual lead saturated with zinc. By removing from the surface of the lead this first crust and working it up separately (liquating, retorting and cupelling), dore silver is obtained.
In the puszta are numerous small lakes, named generally Feher To or White Lakes, because they evaporate in the summer leaving a white crust of soda on their bed.
The history of the crust of the earth was explained by Lyell as due to a process of slow development, in order to effect which he called in no cataclysmic agencies, no mysterious forces differing from those operating at the present day.
Liquid metal coming in contact with such a surface forms a crust of solidified metal over it, and this crust thickens up to a certain point, namely, until the heat from within the furnace just overbalances that lost by conduction through the solidified crust and the cathode material to the flowing water.
Suess pointed out that it was surrounded by a curved line of earth-fracture, following an arc drawn from a centre in the Lipari Islands, from Catanzaro to Etna, and so westward; within this arc he held that the crust of the earth is gradually sinking, and is in an unstable condition.
They owe their origin to depressions of the earth's crust of no very wide extent and not running very far into the continental mass, and geologically they are of recent age and still subject to change.
Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation.
A puritan may go to his brown-bread crust with as gross an appetite as ever an alderman to his turtle.
When Mr Eyre viewed the country from Mount Deception in 1840, looking between Lake Torrens and the lake which now bears his own name, the refraction of light from the glittering crust of salt that covers a large space of stony or sandy ground produced an appearance of water.
The nodules from the "blue earth" have to be freed from matrix and divested of their opaque crust, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water.
The order in which the various subjects are treated in the following sketch is the natural succession from fundamental to dependent facts, which corresponds also to the evolution of the diversities of the earth's crust and of its inhabitants.
In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.