His crucifix is treasured among the monastic archives, which also contain a charter signed by Peter the Great of Russia (1672-1725).
More than this - although the synod of 692 specially allowed the crucifix, yet Greek churches have discarded it ever since the 8th century.
In the principal streets are memorial stones with inscriptions in honour of Charles V., surmounted by an old crucifix with a mosaic cross.
The treasury contains a richly worked silver crucifix 9 ft.
Convicted of wearing his hat while a religious procession was passing - as well as of blasphemy - he was accused as well of having mutilated a crucifix standing on the town bridge.
The victim was slaughtered by the priest in the church porch before the crucifix, after it had been ritually wreathed and given the holy salt, by licking which it appropriated a sacramental purity or efficacy previously conveyed into the salt by exorcisms and consecration.
The question whether a crucifix or rood standing alone or combined with figures of the Blessed Virgin and St John can, in any circumstances, be regarded as merely decorative, has given rise to a difference of judicial opinion and appears to be unsettled."
Ridsdale, 1876 (1 P. & D., 316), a metal crucifix on the centre of the chancel screen was declared illegal as being in danger of being used superstitiously, and in the same case pictures or rather coloured reliefs representing the "Stations of the Cross" were ordered to be removed on the ground that they had been erected without a faculty, and were also considered unlawful by Lord Penzance as connected with certain superstitious devotion authorized by the Roman church.
This conversion, represented as having been brought about while he was hunting on Good Friday by a miraculous appearance of a stag bearing between his horns a cross or crucifix surrounded with rays of light, has frequently been made the subject of artistic treatment.
One has a crucifix between St John the Baptist and a bishop; the other, that found at Devizes, has the two latter figures, but no crucifix.'
In the nave is a little octagonal temple or chapel, which serves as a shrine for the most precious of the relics of Lucca, a cedar-wood crucifix, carved, according to the legend, by Nicodemus, and miraculously conveyed to Lucca in 782.
At present funeral processions survive in general only in the country districts; the processional cross or crucifix is still carried.
With this account is also connected the legend of the Volto Santo of Lucca, a crucifix said to have been carved by Nicodemus.
Beeswing, a brilliant public performer, gave birth to a good horse in Newminster; the same may be said of Alice Hawthorn, dam of Thormanby, of Canezou, dam of Fazzoletto, of Crucifix, dam of Surplice, and of Blink Bonny, dam of Blair Athol; but many of the greatest winners have dropped nothing worth training.
The introduction of the crucifix was later; originally the favourite combination was that of the figure of a lamb lying at the foot of the cross; the council of Constantinople, called "in Trullo," in 692 enjoined that this symbol should be discontinued, and that where Christ was shown in connexion with his cross he should be represented in his human nature.
The soldiers and captains of the Byzantine garrisons were equally Armenians and Syrians, in whom the sight of a crucifix or image set up for worship inspired nothing but horror.
Literature: Louis Brehier, La Querelle des images, and Les Origines du crucifix (Paris, 1904); Librairie Blond, in French, each volume 60 centimes (brief but admirable); Karl Schwartzlose, Der Bilderstreit (Gotha, 1890); Karl Schenk, "The Emperor Leo III.," in Byzant.
In the Uniate Greek Catholic Church the "ambo" has become a table, on which are placed a crucifix and lights, before the doors of the iconostasis; here baptisms, marriages and confirmations take place.
Maria di Provenzano, a vast baroque building of some elegance, designed by Schifardini (1594) Sant' Agostino, rebuilt by Vanvitelli in 1755, containing a Crucifixion and Saints by Perugino, a Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni, the Coming of the Magi by Sodoma, and a St Anthony by Spagnoletto (?); the beautiful church of the Servites (15th century), which contains another Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni and other good examples of the Sienese school; San Francesco, designed by Agostino and Agnolo about 1326, and now restored, which once possessed many fine paintings by Duccio Buoninsegna, Lorenzetti, Sodoma and Beccafumi, some of which perished in the great fire of 1655; San Domenico, a fine 13th-century building with a single nave and transept, containing Sodoma's splendid fresco the Swoon of St Catherine, the Madonna of Guido da Siena, 1281, and a crucifix by Sano di Pietro.
A statute of 1553 made the breaking or defacing of an altar, crucifix or cross in any church, chapel or churchyard punishable with three months' imprisonment on conviction before two justices, the imprisonment to be continued unless the offender entered into surety for good behaviour at quarter sessions.
On it are a mill, a statue of Charlemagne and an iron crucifix surmounted by a gilded cock.
In 1456, the recitation of a few prayers before a church crucifix earned a Pardon of 20,000 years for every such repetition.
It contains a huge high altar, the masterpiece of Veit Stoss, who was a native of Cracow, executed in 1 477 - 1489; a colossal stone crucifix, dating from the end of the 15th century, and several sumptuous tombs of noble families from the 16th and 17th centuries.
He is preceded by the papal cross, carried with the crucifix turned towards him.
The establishment at Rakow was suppressed in 1638, two lads having pelted a crucifix outside the town.
In the sacristy is a crucifix in silver by Paolo Vanni of Perugia (1398).