The planks were of wood, often beech, a few inches wide, and were fastened down, end to end, on logs of wood, or " sleepers," placed crosswise at intervals of two or three feet.
On all the accepted forms there are two or more flanges at the bottom, running lengthwise of the plate and crosswise of the rail; these are requisite to give proper stiffness, and further, as they are forced into the tie by the weight of passing traffic, they help to fix the plate securely in place.
A captain of landsknechts, Fabian by name, holding his long pike crosswise, brought it down with all his force upon the opposing spears, and at the cost of his life made a narrow gap through which the French broke into the mass of the enemy.
The flowers are regular, with four free sepals arranged in two pairs at right angles, four petals arranged crosswise in one series, and two sets of stamens, an outer with two members and an inner with four, in two pairs placed in the middle line of the flower and at right angles to the outer series.
In cases where piles have not been used, as at Niederwil and Wauwyl, the substructure is a mass of fascines or faggots laid parallel and crosswise upon one another with intervening layers of brushwood or of clay and gravel, a few piles here and there being fixed throughout the mass to serve as guides or stays.
The crosswise courses of the greater rivers result from the rivers being older than the mountains, which indeed have been produced by circumdenudation.
Crocodiles are caught in various ways, - for instance, with two pointed sticks, which are fastened crosswise within the bait, an animal's entrails, to which is attached a rope.
Among those Desmidiaceae which live a free life, two plants become surrounded by a common mucilage, in which they lie either parallel (Closterium) or crosswise (Cosmarium).
A variety of figures and conventional signs were drawn in the several compartments: the sun, for instance, is frequently represented by a square and a stroke from each corner, Thor by two hammers placed crosswise; and in the more modern specimens symbols for Christ, the Virgin, and the Holy Ghost are introduced.
A fire was kindled at the bottom of a deep hole in the ground, big sticks were laid crosswise at the top, and meat was hung from them and turned on spits.