Sir William Crookes had already suggested in 1892 in the Fortnightly Review (February 1892) that such an application might be 1 Nuovo cimento, series iii.
The earliest communications were carried on by means of "raps," or, as Sir William Crookes calls them, "percussive sounds."
Sir William Crookes has published accounts of striking experiments and observations with D.
1871; republished with other papers by Crookes, under the title of Researches on the Phenomena of Spiritualism (1874-1876).
Crookes in 1860, may also be noted.
In 1861 Sir William Crookes detected thallium (named from the Gr.
Formerly the sparkand absorption-spectra were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically.
Crookes, Select Methods in Chemical Analysis (1894).
Crookes showed that the arc brought about combination; and in 1897 Lord Rayleigh went into the process more fully.
Crookes (Proc. Roy.
SIR WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-), English chemist and physicist, was born in London on the 17th of June 1832, and studied chemistry at the Royal College of Chemistry under A.
Thence he was led to his famous researches on the phenomena produced by the discharge of electricity through highly exhausted tubes (sometimes known as "Crookes' tubes" in consequence), and to the development of his theory of "radiant matter" or matter in a "fourth state," which led up to the modern electronic theory.
Henry Wurtz in America (1864) and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the mercury, the operation is much facilitated.
Crookes, who had found that some delicate weighings in vacua were vitiated by this cause.
Crookes to the same general conclusion.
Crookes and G.
Crookes in his presidential address to the British Association in 1898.
In the raising of the standard of farming to an English level the volume of the world's crop would be trebled, another fact which Sir William Crookes seems to have overlooked.
Boys' microradiometer has occasionally been made use of, and the extreme sensitiveness of the Crookes' radiometer has also given excellent results in the hands of H.
Phosphorescence (q.v.) can only be here alluded to in order to draw attention to the phenomena studied by Sir William Crookes and others in vacuum tubes.
Crookes) (Griffin, Bohn & Co., 1861); On the Various Forces in Nature (edited by W.
Crookes) (Chatto & Windus, no date).
According to circumstances, the colour of the light obtained from a Plucker vacuum tube changes "from red to a rich steel blue," to use the words of Crookes, who first described the phenomenon.
The red spectrum is obtained at moderately low 'pressures (5 mm.) by the use of a Ruhmkorff coil without a jar or air-gap. The red lines at 7056 and 6965 (Crookes) are characteristic. The blue spectrum is best seen at a somewhat lower pressure (I mm.
Sir William Crookes has, however, changed a pale yellow diamond to a bluish-green colour by keeping it embedded in radium bromide for eleven weeks.
Among papers in scientific periodicals may be mentioned articles by Adler, Ball, Baumhauer, Beck, Bonney, Brewster, Chaper, Cohen, Crookes, Daubree, Derby, Des Cloizeaux, Doelter, Dunn, Flight, Friedel, Gorceix, Gurich, Goeppert, Harger, Hudleston, Hussak, Jannettaz, Jeremejew, de Launay, Lewis, Maskelyne, Meunier, Moissan, Molengraaff, Moulle, Rose, Sadebeck, Scheibe, Stelzner, Stow.
It was discovered in 1861 by Sir William Crookes, who, during a spectroscopic examination of the flue-dust produced in the roasting of seleniferous pyrites occurring at Tilkerode in the Harz, observed a green line foreign to all then known spectra.
Crookes presumed that his thallium was something of the order of sulphur, selenium or tellurium; but Lamy, who anticipated him in isolating the new element, found it to be a metal.
The atomic weight of thallium was determined very carefully by Crookes, who found T1=204.2 (0= 16); this figure was confirmed by Lepierre in 1893.
Sir William Crookes took up in 1872 the study of electric discharge through The Work of Hertz (London, 1894).
The particular details of the phenomena observed will be found described in the article Electric conduction (§ The main fact discovered by researches of Plucker, Hittorf and Crookes was that in a vacuum tube containing extremely rarefied air or other gas, a luminous discharge takes place from the negative electrode which proceeds in lines normal to the surface of the negative electrode and renders phosphorescent both the glass envelope and other objects placed in the vacuum tube when it falls upon them.
Varley had advanced tentatively the hypothesis that it consisted in an actual projection of electrified matter from the cathode, and Crookes was led by his researches in 1870, 1871 and 1872 to embrace and confirm this hypothesis in a modified form and announce the existence of a fourth state of matter, which he called radiant matter, demonstrating by many beautiful and convincing experiments that there was an actual projection of material substance of some kind possessing inertia from the surface of the cathode.
Thomson, Sir William Crookes, Sir William Ramsay and others in England.
Crookes, Ann., 1851, 78, p. 177).
In his presidential address before the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1900), Sir William Crookes painted a rather dark picture of the future of the world's wheat production.
Trans., 18 95, p. 468), and various papers in the same journal by Sir William Crookes, Bohuslav Brauner and others should be consulted for details.