(1366-1333) from Syria, showing the road from Pelusium to Heroopolis, the canal from the Nile with crocodiles, and a lake (mod.
Animals, hitherto unknown to the Romans, were exhibited in the circus, and an artificial lake (eunipus) was made for the reception of crocodiles and hippopotamuses.
Like the crocodiles, birds possess a siphonium, i.e.
One of the functions of this peculiar muscle (which is similarly developed in crocodiles, but absent, or not differentiated from the ilio-tibial and ilio-femoral mass, in other vertebrates) is that its contraction helps to close the second and third toes.
It occurs in two different forms. In the Ratitae, except Rhea, it consists mainly of a right and left united half (corpora fibrosa), with a deep longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side, and much resembles the same organ in crocodiles and tortoises.
Ostriches are found in the open plains; the rivers swarm with crocodiles, but hippopotami are rare.
AMPHIBIA, a zoological term originally employed by Linnaeus to denote a class of the Animal Kingdom comprising crocodiles, lizards and salamanders, snakes and Caeciliae, tortoises and turtles and frogs; to which, in the later editions of the Systema N aturae he added some groups of fishes.
In addition Cuvier accepts the Linnaean subdivisions of Amphibia-Reptilia for the tortoises, lizards (including crocodiles), salamanders and frogs; and Amphibia-Serpentes for the snakes, apodal lizards and Caeciliae.
Hippopotami are still found in the Umgeni river and crocodiles in several of the coast streams. Leopards and panthers are found in thickly wooded kloofs.
Both these groups seem to have reached their climax but recently, while the tortoises, crocodiles and sphenodon are on the descending scale, mere remnants of formerly much more numerous and cosmopolitan development.
Crocodiles are numerous in all the larger rivers.
Perhaps the earliest known instance of his prominent appearance of large size in the sculptures of the temples is under Tahraka, at Jebel Barkal, Nubia, at the beginning of the 7th century B.C. As the protector of children and others he is the enemy of noxious beasts, such as lions, crocodiles, serpents and scorpions.
The ancient Greeks and Romans kept in captivity large numbers of such animals as leopards, lions, bears, elephants, antelopes, giraffes, camels, rhinoceroses and hippopotamuses, as well as ostriches and crocodiles, but these were destined for slaughter at the gladiatorial shows.
Thus the analysis of George Baur of the ancestral form of the lizards, mosasaurs, dinosaurs, crocodiles and phytosaurs led both to the generalized Palaeohatteria of the Permian and indirectly to the surviving Tuatera lizard of New Zealand.
Among marine Mesozoic reptiles, each of the groups broadly known as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurs and crocodiles were polyphyletic in a marked degree.
Alligators and crocodiles are numerous in the lagoons and rivers of the coast and the iguana is to be found everywhere throughout the tropical lowlands, the large black Ctenosura acanthinurus being partly arboreal in habit when full grown.
The Basutos think that crocodiles can devour the shadow of a man cast on the surface of water.
Crocodiles and two kinds of hippopotami, the ordinary and a pygmy variety, are found in the rivers.
Especially in alligators the upper teeth overlap laterally those of the lower jaw, whilst in most crocodiles the overlapping is less marked and the teeth mostly interlock, a feature which increases with the slenderness of the snout.
A kind of plover, Pluvianus aegyptius, often sits upon basking crocodiles, and, since the latter often rest with gaping mouth, it is possible that these agile birds do pick the reptiles' teeth in search of parasites.
Considering the interest which is taken in crocodiles and their allies, on account of their size, their dangerous nature and the sporting trophies which they yield, the following " key," based upon easily ascertained characters of the skull, is given.
Australians are in the habit of calling their crocodiles alligators.
Lastly there are two species of true crocodiles in America, C. intermedius of the Orinoco, allied to the former, and C. americanus or acutus of the West Indies, Mexico, Central America to Venezuela and Ecuador; its characteristic feature is a median ridge or swelling on the snout, which is rather slender.
The above list shows that the usual statement that crocodiles inhabit the Old World and alligators the New World is not strictly true.
In the Tertiary epoch alligators, crocodiles and long-snouted gavials existed in Europe.
Thus at Bubastis, up ~re the cat-headed Bast (TJbasti) was worshipped, vast ceme- strt es of mummified cats have been found; and elsewhere or, ilar funerary cults were accorded to crocodiles, lizards, ibises Th(~many other animals.
Among the perennial streams may be mentioned the Na'aman, south of Acre; the Mukatta` Kishon, at Haifa; the Nahr ez-Zerka, sometimes called the Crocodile River - so named from the crocodiles still occasionally to be seen in it; the Nahr el-Falik; the `Aujeh a few miles north of Jaffa and the Nahr Rubin.
Crocodiles are extremely numerous in many of the streams, and are occasionally found in the sea along the coasts.
Fights between these huge serpents and the crocodiles which infest all the rivers are said to be not uncommon.
Crocodiles (commonly called alligators) swarm in all parts of the Brahmaputra, and are very destructive to the fish, of which hundreds of varieties are found, and which supply a valuable article of food.
Hippopotami and crocodiles abound in the rivers, which are well stocked with many kinds of fish, including varieties resembling perch and bream; and otters make their home in the river banks.
In the eastern part of the country the rhinoceros is met with, and the rivers swarm with crocodiles and with a curious mammal called the ayu, bearing some resemblance to the seal.
Xii.) - monstrous serpents with the heads of crocodiles - are natural products of the Egyptian imagination.
Temples (so called) are found in the north and west, built like the houses, but larger, the piles being carved into figures, and the roof-beams and other prominent points decorated with representations of crocodiles or lizards, coarse human figures, and other grotesque ornamentation; but their use is not clear.
Small species of boa; crocodiles abound in the rivers and lakes; and numerous species of lizard, chameleon and tree-frog inhabit the woods.
Hippopotami are found in the upper part of the river, and crocodiles abound in the creeks.
Reptiles - snakes, lizards and chameleons, crocodiles, turtles and an enormous variant of the edible Indian crab - are numerous; butterflies and insects, the latter very troublesome, have not yet been systematically collected.
The Metternich stela (XXXth Dynasty), the finest example of a class of prophylactic stelae generally known by the name of "Horus on the crocodiles," is inscribed with a long text relating the adventures of Isis and Horus in the marshes of the Delta.
Crocodiles), it seems hard to admit that the term may be thus diverted from its original signification, especially when such a change results in discarding the name expressly proposed by Brongniart to denote the association which has ever since been universally adopted either as an order, a sub-class or a class.
Fish abound, as do waterfowl, crocodiles and, in the southern swamps, hippopotami.
Salamanders, toads and frogs are numerous, and crocodiles abound.
Crocodiles are caught in various ways, - for instance, with two pointed sticks, which are fastened crosswise within the bait, an animal's entrails, to which is attached a rope.