M.) was incorporated with the rest of Transylvania; and in 1871 effect was given to the imperial decree of 1869 by which the districts of the Warasdin regiments (St George and the Cross) and the towns of Zengg, B elovar, Ivanic, &c., were "provincialized" or incorporated with the Croatian-Slavonian crown-land.
Not till 1881, however, were the Croatian-Slavonian march-lands completely merged in the kingdoms to which they naturally belonged.
ARBE (Serbo-Croatian Rab), an island in the Adriatic Sea, forming the northernmost point of Dalmatia, Austria.
The name Herzegovina is also written Hertzegovina, Hertsegovina or, in Croatian, Hercegovina.
The Una rises on the Croatian border, and, after skirting the Pljesevica Planina, in Croatia, turns sharply to the north-east; serving as a frontier stream for 37 m.
Model farms were established at Livno and at Gacko, on the Montenegrin border; a school of viticulture near Mostar; a model poultry-farm at Prijedor, close to the Croatian boundary;.
All alike belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; and all speak a language almost identical with Servian, though written by the Roman Catholics in Latin instead of Cyrillic letters.
Except where the litigants and witnesses are German, the Serbo-Croatian language is used.
It seems probable that the bans were originally viceroys of the Croatian kings, who resumed their sovereignty over Bosnia from 958 to ioio.
From 1299 to 1322 the country was ruled by the Croatian princes, Paul and Mladen Subic, who, though vassals of Hungary, reunited the provinces of Upper and Lower Bosnia, created by the Hungarians in order to prevent the growth of a dangerous national unity.
Piale, a Croatian who had been brought up in the imperial harem and succeeded Sinan as capudan-pasha, crowned a series of victories over the galleys of Andrea Doria by the capture of the island of Jerba, off Tripoli (July 31, 1560).
The Sla y s, the most numerous race after the Magyars, are divided into several groups: the Slovaks, mainly massed in the mountainous districts of northern Hungary; the Ruthenians, established mainly on the slopes of the Carpathians between Poprad and Maramaros Sziget; the Serbs, settled in the south of Hungary from the bend of the Danube eastwards across the Theiss into the Banat; the Croats, overwhelmingly preponderant in Croatia-Slavonia, with outlying settlements in the counties of Zala, Vas and Sopron along the Croatian and Styrian frontier.
The border counties, now formed into a military zone, were planted exclusively with Croatian colonists as being more trustworthy defenders of the Hungarian frontier than the Hungarians themselves.
He not only refused to obey, but on the 5th of June convoked to Agram the Croatian national diet, of which the first act was to declare the independence of the Tri-une Kingdom.
Seven days later the ban declared open war on Hungary by crossing the Drave at the head of 36,000 Croatian troops (see Austria-Hungary: History).
He was defeated by a combination of the Kossuthists, Andrássy Liberals and Clerical People's party, the 30 Croatian deputies, whose vote might have turned the election, abstaining on Dr Wekerle promising them to deliver Croatia from the oppressive rule of the ban, Baron Rauch.
This short-lived experiment, which inspired the muse of Vodnik, the first Slovene poet of real mark, had its aftermath in the Illyrian movement of the forties, which centred in Zagreb, the Croatian capital.
It was a fertile soil for Gaj's agitation, and in 1848 the Croatian nation found in Baron Jelacic a military leader who voiced the Illyrian idea and hoped to realize it in union with the Habsburg Dynasty and the other subject nationalities of Hungary.
Within certain limits Croatia's autonomy was respected, but so far from Zagreb being consulted, the terms of the new settlement were in effect dictated from Budapest and only submitted pro forma to a carefully " packed " Croatian Diet, after the bargain between Budapest and Vienna had already made of them an accomplished fact.
The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.
On April 3 the Croatian constitution was completely suspended by royal decree, and Cuvaj invested with far-reaching dictatorial powers.
Specially significant were the Memorandum addressed to the throne by 55 deputies of the Croat party of Right, in the Croatian, Bosnian, Dalmatian and Istrian Diets, and the political strike organized by the pupils of both sexes in almost all the middle schools of the Slavonic South.
In Croatia the coalition was more opportunist than ever, and sent its delegates to the coronation of Charles as King of Hungary: by its compliance it obtained the appointment of its own nominee, Mr. Mihalovic, as Ban, and was thus able to husband Croatian resources and on occasion to practise passive resistance.
Most of the European races with which the Turks came into close contact during the 15th and 6th centuries seem to have adopted it as a loan-word, and it appears in Magyar as hajdu (plural hajduk), in Serbo-Croatian, Rumanian, Polish and Cech as hajduk, in Bulgarian as hajdutin and in Greek as xaw-rouTns.
SEBENICO (Serbo-Croatian, Sibenik), an episcopal city, and the centre of an administrative district in Dalmatia, Austria; at the end of a branch railway from Knin.
Sebenico first became prominent in the 12th century as a favourite residence of the Croatian kings.
There is sufficient evidence that his family was of Croatian stock: a fact which throws light upon the distinctively Slavonic character of much of his music. He received the first rudiments of education from his father, a wheelwright with twelve children, and at an early age evinced a decided musical talent.
The actual employment of Croatian folk-tunes may be illustrated from the string quartets Op. 17, No.
Kuhac, Josip Haydn i Hravatske Narodne Popievke (Joseph Haydn and the Croatian Folk-songs) (Agram, 1880); A.
17 1917 by the Croatian representatives proclaimed, as a condition of the national existence and the cultural and economic development of the Southern Sla y s, that they should remain under the House of Habsburg.
SISSEK (Hungarian, Sziszek; Croatian, Sisak), a town of Croatia-Slavonia, in the county of Agram; situated at the confluence of the Save and Kulpa, 30 m.
JOSEF JELLACHICH, Count (1801-1859), Croatian statesman, was born on the 16th of October 1801 at Petervarad.
See the anonymous The Croatian Revolution of the Year 1848 (Croat.), Agram, 1898.
AGRAM (Hungarian ZÃ¡grÃ¡b, Croatian Zagreb), the capital of Croatia-Slavonia, and a royal free town of Hungary; pleasantly situated between the north bank of the Save and the mountains which culminate in Sljeme (3396 ft.); 187 m.
RAGUSA (Serbo-Croatian Dubrovnik), an episcopal city, and the centre of an administrative district in Dalmatia, Austria.
The fate of the Habsburg empire depended upon the issue of the campaign in Italy, which would have been lost by the withdrawal of the Magyar and Croatian regiments; and the Hungarian government chose this critical moment to tamper with the relations of the army to the monarchy.
On the 10th Jellachich issued a proclamation to the Croatian regiments in Italy, bidding them remain and fight for the emperor and the common Fatherland.
The only exception was in the Italian districts; not only in Italy itself (in Lombardy, and afterwards in Venetia), but in South Tirol, Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, Italian has always been used, even for the internal service of the government offices, and though the actual words of command are now given in German and the officers are obliged to know Serbo-Croatian it remains to this day the language of the Austrian navy.
The effect of these laws has been to raise Croatian to equality with Italian.
It has been introduced in all schools, so that nearly all education is given in Croatian, even though a knowledge of Italian is quite essential for the maritime population; and it is only in one or two towns, such as Zara, the ancient capital of the country, that Italian is able to maintain itself.
CHUPRIYA (sometimes written Tiupriia; Croatian Cuprya), the capital of the Morava department of Servia, on the railway from Belgrade to Nish, and on the right bank of the Morava, which is navigable up to this point by small sailing-vessels.
A body of these Uskoks, as they were called, from a Serbo-Croatian word meaning "refugee," established itself in the Dalmatian fortress of Clissa, near Spalato, and thence waged continual war upon the Turks.
Clissa, however, became untenable, and the Uskoks withdrew to Zengg, on the Croatian coast, where, in accordance with the Austrian system of planting colonies of defenders along the Military Frontier, they were welcomed by the Emperor Ferdinand I., and promised an annual subsidy in return for their services.
With these they preyed upon the commerce of the Adriatic. Their ranks were soon swelled by outlaws from all nations, and by their own once peaceful neighbours, from Novi, Ottocac and other Croatian towns.
Along the Croatian and Dalmatian coast there existed a well-developed Latin civilization, which was sustained by constant intercourse with Italy; and, under its influence, the Serbo-Croatian immigrants were converted to the Roman Catholic Church.
CATTARO (Serbo-Croatian Kotor), the chief town of an administrative district in Dalmatia, Austria.
WARASDIN (Hungarian, Varasd; Croatian, Varazdin), a royal free town of Hungary, and capital of the county of Warasdin, in Croatia-Slavonia; on the right bank of the Drave, 62 m.
For a full description of the cathedral, in Serbo-Croatian and French, see the finely illustrated folio Stolna Crkva u Djakovu, published by the South Slavonic Academy (Agram, 1900).
SPALATO, or Spalatro (Serbo-Croatian Spljet or Split), an episcopal city, and the centre of an administrative district, in Dalmatia, Austria, and on the Adriatic Sea.
PODGORITSA (Croatian, Podgorica), the largest town in Montenegro; on the left bank of the river Moracha, and in a fertile valley which strikes inland for 18 m.