Studio critico (Florence, 1890).
Its introduction and six chapters present with rare lucidity the earliest conceptions of the Kingdom of Heaven, the Son of God, the Church, Christian dogma and Catholic worship; and together form a severely critico-historical yet strongly Catholic answer to Harnack's still largely pietistic Wesen des Christentums. It develops throughout the principles that "what is essential in Jesus' Gospel is what occupies the first and largest place in His authentic teaching, the ideas for which He fought and died, and not only that idea which we may consider to be still a living force to-day"; that "it is supremely arbitrary to decree that Christianity must be essentially what the Gospel did not borrow from Judaism, as though what the Gospel owes to Judaism were necessarily of secondary worth"; that "whether we trust or distrust tradition, we know Christ only by means of, athwart and within the Christian tradition"; that "the essence of Christianity resides in the fulness and totality of its life"; and that "the adaptation of the Gospel to the changing conditions of humanity is to-day a more pressing need than ever."
Spain Spain owes her intellectual emancipation to the monk Benito Feyjoo, who in 1726 produced a volume of dissertations somewhat after the fashion of the Spectator, but on graver subjects, entitled Teatro critico, which was continued down to 1739.
1 7791 79 2); Teatro historico-critico de la elocuencia Espanola (1786); Filiosofia de la elocuencia (1776), and Cuestiones criticas sobre varios pantos de historia econOmica, politica, y militar (1807).
Among the numerous works that more or less expressly deal with this subject, that of Marina (Ensayo historico-critico sobre la antigua legislacion y principales cuerpos legales de los reynos de Leon y Castilla) still continues to hold a high place.
But now the view of the critico-historical school of Protestant thought, of which Dr Adolf Harnack is so representative a spokesman, is that the preservation of spiritual religion in Catholic Christianity, both Eastern and Western, has been mainly, if not wholly, due to monasticism (see Harnack's early tractate Das Monchtum, translated under the title Monasticism, by E.
Studio critico (Rome, 1906); R.
Among general critical studies are Costa e Silva's Ensaio biographico-critico and the masterly work of Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de las ideas estaticas Espana.