But in the course of time, notwithstanding many criticisms and objections, the reform spread from bottom fermentation to top fermentation breweries on the continent and in America.
A work so widely circulated by the author naturally attracted attention, but in France it was principally the mathematicians who took it up, and their criticisms were more pungent than complimentary.
The criticisms of the last two are the criticisms of a hostile school of thought; those of Arnauld are the difficulties of a possible disciple.
During these years he began to study literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by criticisms on his style.
Those have found little favour who brought to the debate only formal criticisms or amplifications of the Darwinian arguments, or re-marshallings of the Darwinian facts, however ably conducted.
The criticisms were directed chiefly to the inclusion of sand dune plants among halophytes, to the exclusion of halophytes from xerophytes, to the inclusion of bog xerophytes among hydrophytes, to the inclusion of all conifers among xerophytes and of all deciduous trees among mesophytes, and to the group of mesophytes in general.
The moral effect of the report, with the criticisms of the company's methods and recommendations appended thereto, is great, and it rarely happens that a company refuses to adopt, or at any rate to test, the recommendations so made.
That his temperament at the same time was frigid and comparatively passionless cannot be denied; but neither ought this to be imputed to him as a fault; hostile criticisms upon the grief for a father's death, that " was soothed by the conscious satisfaction that I had discharged all the duties of filial piety," seem somewhat out of place.
These Cretan institutions were much extolled by some writers of antiquity, but receive only qualified praise from the judicious criticisms of Aristotle (Polit.
He went over every part of the translation with me, observed on every passage in which justice was not done to the thought or the force of the expression lost, and made many useful criticisms. During this occupation we had occasion to see one another often, and became very intimate; and, as he had read much, had seen a great deal of the world, was acquainted with all the most distinguished persons who at that time adorned either the royal court or the republic of letters in France; had a great knowledge of French and Italian literature, and possessed very good taste, his conversation was extremely interesting and not a little instructive.
There are also a number of valuable French and German criticisms, e.g.
Here the matter must be left; but it is undoubtedly a subject which demands further investigation, and naturally any future investigator of it should consult the abstract of L'Herminier's memoir and the criticisms upon it of the younger Geoffroy.
For criticisms of this edition see Traube in Roederer's Schriften fiir germanische Philologie (1888).
Criticisms of his Etat de la France appeared in Germany and England by F.
The remaining years of Bayle's life were devoted to miscellaneous writings, arising in many instances out of criticisms made upon his Dictionary.
Channing (1790-1856) until 1821, contributing essays and criticisms which attracted wide attention.
These efforts were inspired by a series of scientific studies and criticisms, chief among which were Vauban's Dime royale, and the Taille tarifee of the Abbe de St.
1905), the ablest of the scholastic criticisms of the historical method by a highly influential French professor of theology, now many years in Rome; Quello the vogliamo (Rome, 1907, Eng.
The usual criticisms on Tribonian may be found in the AntiTribonianus (1567) °of Francis Hotman, the aim of which is shown by its alternative title, Sive discursus in quo jurisprudentiae Tribonianeae sterilitas et legum patriarum excellentia exhibetur; and an answer to them in J.
He furnished Marie de' Medici with political ideas and acute criticisms of the king's ministry, especially of the Brularts.
Plotted like a schoolboy to turn his devotions into secret criticisms of state policies.
The last of these was that of Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), who, whilst surveying all previous classifications, propounded a scheme of his own (Essay on Classification, 1859), in which, as well as in the criticisms he applies to other systems, the leading notion is that sub-kingdoms, classes, orders and families have a real existence, and that it is possible to ascertain and distinguish characters which are of class value, others which are cnly of ordinal value, and so on; so that the classes of one sub-kingdom should on paper, and in nature actually do, correspond in relative value to those of another sub-kingdom, and the orders of any one class similarly should be so taken as to be of equal value with those of another class, and have been actually so created.
The result of the two years was undoubtedly to revive the confidence of the Opposition, who found that they had outlived the criticisms of the general election, and both on the question of tariff reform and on matters of general politics were again holding their own.
From 1870 he was editor of the Journal fiir praktische Chemie, in which many trenchant criticisms of contemporary chemists and their doctrines appeared from his pen.
He then turned to journalism and began the Journal de politique et de liteerature, which he employed for two years in literary, philosophical and legal criticisms. But a sarcastic article on the French Academy compelled him to turn over the Journal to La Harpe and seek refuge abroad.
The form Jehovah was used in the 16th century by many authors, both Catholic and Protestant, and in the 17th was zealously defended by Fuller, Gataker, Leusden and others, against the criticisms of such scholars as Drusius, Cappellus and the elder Buxtorf.
Shepherd in his Tennysoniana (1866), supplied a list of criticisms on his work, and a bibliography issued separately in 1896.
These criticisms mean that his most elaborate discussions came forty years too late, for they were concerned with problems which agitated the middle rather than the end of the 19th century.
The criticisms, however, wounded alike authors and the clergy, and the journal was suppressed after a career of three months.
His favourite authors were Euripides, Virgil and Racine, whom he defends against the stock criticisms of the admirers of Corneille with equal zeal and insight.
Charles Lamb's criticisms were made in three short pieces, two of which were written for Wilson's book, and the third for The Reflector.
Some of these criticisms are rather beside the mark, but were all true, they would not impair his essential greatness, which lay in another sphere.
An elaborate Apology for the confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon in reply to Roman Catholic criticisms. This, together with the confession, the articles of Lutheran.
The negative criticisms of Kosters have, however, been strengthened by his replies (in the Dutch Theolog.
To the criticisms of the latter, in particular, Fichte owed much, but his own activity went far beyond what they supplied to him.
In these he made those criticisms on the older tragic and epic poets of which Horace and other ancient writers speak.
A delightful essay on Garrick appeared in the Quarterly Review (July 1868), directing attention to the admirable criticisms of Garrick's acting in 1775 in the letters of G.
He was surrounded with spies who reported, none too accurately, the minister's somewhat sharp criticisms of the emperor's acts; he had even had the supreme presumption to advise Alexander not to take the chief command in the coming campaign.
This review contains studies in preparation for the continuation and remoulding of the Acta Sanctorum, inedited texts, dissertations, and, since 1892, a Bulletin des publications hagiographiques, containing criticisms of recent works on hagiographic questions.
He heard from this same teacher bold criticisms of Romish teaching concerning the sacraments, monastic vows and papal indulgences, and unconsciously he was thus trained for the great remonstrance of his maturer life.
Schultens was never the same as before to him; Reiske indeed was too independent, and hurt him by his open criticisms of his master's way of making Arabic mainly a handmaid of Hebrew.
1917, but the Caporetto Commission of Inquiry rejected most of the criticisms made upon him.
Not long afterwards there appeared in the Weekly Journal some severe criticisms of the administration.
To be recorded also is a volume of essays and literary criticisms, How to Tell a Story (1897).
In later years he published a few minor volumes of fiction, and a series of severe and also amusing criticisms of Christian Science (pub lished as a book in 1907), and in 1906 he began an autobiography in the North American Review.
Many Republicans who had sympathized with his criticisms of the administration, and with the declaration of principles adopted at the first convention, were repelled by the coalition.
The annual reports, of which he was the chief author, became controversial pamphlets; he published bold replies to criticisms upon the work of the Commission; he explained its purposes to newspaper correspondents; when Congress refused to appropriate the amount which he believed essential for the work, he made the necessary economies by abandoning examinations of candidates for the Civil Service in those districts whose representatives in Congress had voted to reduce the appropriation, thus very shrewdly bringing their adverse vote into disfavour among their own constituents; and during the six years of his commissionership more than twenty thousand positions for government employes were taken out of the realm of merely political appointment and added to the classified service to be obtained and retained for merit only.
Nor are its criticisms limited to theology alone: its care extends to philosophy, history and the natural sciences.
Each instalment of his History, in common with almost everything which he wrote, was widely read, and in spite of some adverse criticisms was received with eager applause.
(2) His doctrine of perception, which is, in brief, that "the perception of external things through the organs of sense is a direct mental act or phenomenon of consciousness not susceptible of being resolved into anything else," and the reality of which can be neither proved nor disproved, is not worked out in detail, but is supported by elaborate and sometimes subtle criticisms of all other theories.
From 1819 to 1835 he wrote about seventeen pieces and then abandoned publishing, having taken offence at some severe criticisms. At his death he left several comedies, which were issued in a posthumous edition.
Smarting under defeat and angered by Hamilton's criticisms, Burr sent the challenge which resulted in the famous duel at Weehawken, N.J., on the 11th of July 1804, and the death of Hamilton on the following day.
Among the translations made by "Carmen Sylva" are German versions of Pierre Loti's romance Pecheur d'Islande, and of Paul de St Victor's dramatic criticisms Les DeuxMasques (Paris,1881-1884); and in particular The Bard of the Dimbovitza, a fine English version by "Carmen Sylva" and Alma Strettell of Helene Vacarescu's collection of Rumanian folk-songs, &c., entitled Lieder aus dem Dimbovitzathal (Bonn, 1889).
The next stage brings us to the critical theories or conclusions which at first gradually and then rapidly, in spite of the keenest criticisms directed against them both by those who clung more or less completely to tradition and by the representatives of the earlier critical school, gained increasing acceptance, until to-day they dominate Old Testament study.