Speaking generally, the exclusion of days of rain and of negative potential comes pretty much to the same thing, and the presence or absence of negative potential is riot infrequently the criterion by reference to which days are rejected or are accepted as normal.
Thus the retributive theory of punishment with its criterion of justice as an end in itself gives place to a theory which regards punishment solely as a means to an end, utilitarian or moral, according as the common advantage or the good of the criminal is sought.
Lauder's charge of plagiarism (1750), attacking David Hume's rationalism in his Criterion of Miracles (1752), and the Hutchinsonians in his Apology for the Clergy (1755).
It is therefore not a criterion which can do justice to the principles of Wagner's non-symphonic art, for its.
Diplo- ~e1~s the matic records fail to substantiate the accusations of g lack of initiative and instability of political criterion currently brought against him by contemporaries.
The explicit adoption of this point of view has had the effect of clearing up and rendering definite the older morphological doctrines, which for the most part had no fixed criterion by which they could be tested.
It is important to understand clearly the criterion which he applied; it is frequently misapprehended.
In the light of this knowledge we shall be able to formulate the moral code, which, in turn, will serve as a criterion of actual civic and social institutions.
But, as society exists only for the proper development of persons, we have a criterion by which to test these institutions, viz.
Erskine had little interest in the "historical criticism" of Christianity, and regarded as the only proper criterion of its truth its conformity or nonconformity with man's spiritual nature, and its adaptability or non-adaptability to man's spiritual needs.
The criterion whether a pseudo-symmetric form is a true polymorph or not consists in the determination of the scalar properties (e.g.
Y of finding and applying a criterion of the presence or absence of consciousness, it is none the less desirable, in the interests of psychology, to state that truly instinctive acts (as defined) are accompanied by consciousness.
This marks them off from such reflex acts as are unconsciously performed, and from the tropisms of plants and other lowly organisms. There remains, however, the difficulty of finding any satisfactory criterion of the presence of consciousness.
We seem forced to accept a practical criterion for purposes of interpretation rather than one which can be theoretically defended against all adverse criticism.
To profit by individual experience is thus the only criterion we possess of the existence of the conscious experience itself.
If now the nti c denote a given pencil of lines, an invariant is the criterion of the pencil possessing some particular property which is independent alike of the axes and of the multiples, and a covariant expresses that the pencil of lines which it denotes is a fixed pencil whatever be the axes or the multiples.
Starting from the two Socratic principles of virtue and happiness, he emphasized the second, and made pleasure the criterion of life.
There is a very definite criterion of the simplicity due to degeneration, which can in most cases be applied.
The church lays down a rule of domestic policy, and neither gives nor pretends to give any absolute criterion for the validity of ordination.
Been passed by all previous collectors, and what criterion was there to establish their genuineness?
Having thus disposed of the ideas of truth and causality, he proceeds to undermine the ethical criterion, and denies that any man can aim at Good, Pleasure or Happiness as an absolute, concrete ideal.
His universal process of Evolution seems to give Spencer a criterion of" higher "and" lower " progression "and" degeneration,"independent of the accidents of actual history, and unattainable by strictly Darwinian methods.
The transition from the evolutionist criterion of survival - which in itself it is difficult to regard as anything but non-moral - to the criterion of happiness is effected by means of the psychological argument that pleasure promotes function and that living beings must, upon pain of extinction, sooner or later take pleasure in actions which are conducive to their survival.
Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.
The state of the pulse is the best criterion of the action of alcohol in any given case of fever.
This is the cycle employed by Carnot for the establishment of his fundamental principle of reversibility as the criterion of perfect efficiency in a heat engine.
In all such cases there is necessarily, by Carnot's principle, a loss of efficiency or available energy, accompanied by an increase of entropy, which serves as a convenient measure or criterion of the loss.
This affords a useful criterion (see Energetics) between transformations which are impossible and those which are possible but irreversible.
Thus, by the criterion of harmony, Shaftesbury refutes Hobbes, and deduces the virtue of benevolence as indispensable to morality.
The differences of salinity support this method, and, especially in the northern European seas, often prove a sharper criterion of the boundaries than temperature itself; this is especially the case at the entrance to the Baltic. Evidence drawn from drift-wood, wrecks or special drift bottles is less distinct but still interesting and often useful; this method of investigation includes the use of icebergs as indicators of the trend of currents and also of plankton, the minute swimming or drifting organisms so abundant at the surface of the sea.
The defect of English empiricism from the outset had been the uncritical acceptance of the metaphysical dogma of a pure unadulterated sense-experience as the criterion of truth.
But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.
There is no notion that may not deceive us; it is impossible to distinguish between false and true impressions; therefore the Stoic 4avravia KaTaMprrud7 (see Stoics) must be given up. There is no criterion of truth.
Hence the criterion for the position of the loads which makes the moment at C greatest is this: one load must be at C, and the other loads must be distributed, so that the average loads per ft.
A to----- 1 z c This criterion may be stated in another way.
The position of the loads which gives the greatest moment at C may be settled by the criterion given above.
Feeling, therefore, is the only possible criterion alike of knowledge and of conduct.
21, 22 seeks the legal criterion of true prophecy in the fulfilment of prediction, the writer is no doubt guided by the remembrance of the remarkable confirmation which the doctrines of spiritual prophecy had received in history then recent, but his criterion would have appeared inadequate to the prophets themselves, and indeed this passage is one of the most striking proofs that to formulate the principles of prophetic religion in a legal code was an impossible task.
In tracing the phylogeny, or ancestral history of organs, palaeontology affords the only absolute criterion on the successive evolution of organs in time as well as of (progressive) evolution in form.
7)80vij, pleasure, from 7)81us, sweet, pleasant), in ethics, a general term for all theories of conduct in which the criterion is pleasure of one kind or another.
In the first place hedonism may confine itself to the view that, as a matter of observed fact, all men do in practice make pleasure the criterion of action, or it may go further and assert that men ought to seek pleasure as the sole human good.
The only real happiness is the happiness of the community, or at least of the majority: the criterion is society, not the individual.
Instead, therefore, of the criterion of "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," Stephen has that of the "health of the organism."
There is however no precedent of neutralization of any such area of the high sea, and international rivers, ocean canals and neutralized states are obviously no criterion in discussing a proposal to neutralize a strip of the ocean, which may be defined accurately enough on the map and which skilful navigators could approximately determine, but which might be violated without any practical means of detection by a belligerent commander whenever he misread, or it suited him to misread, his bearings.
We must now however introduce a new criterion the " purity " and distinguish it from the resolving power: the purity is defined by n l /(n l n2), where n 1 and n, are the frequencies of two lines such that they would just be resolved with the width of slit used.
Rationalis, pertaining to reason, ratio), a term employed both in philosophy and in theology for any system which sets up human reason as the final criterion and chief source of knowledge.
233), represent an attack on the Stoic Oat/Tao-La KaTaXmrruci i (Criterion) and are based on the sceptical element (see Scepticism) which was latent in the later writings of Plato.
While, then, the general idea of a theory of knowledge as based upon psychological analysis is the groundwork of the Treatise, it is a particular consequence of this idea that furnishes to Hume the characteristic criterion applied by him to all philosophical questions.
Of ideas are accepted as facts of immediate observation, as being themselves perceptions or individual elements of conscious experience, and to all appearance they are regarded by Hume as being in a sense analytical, because the formal criterion of identity is applicable to them.
Egtfally great gaps, however, may exist between males and females, between climatic phases or summer and winter forms. The attempt to find a physiological criterion has similarly failed; many forms that have been universally accepted as true species produce fertile hybrids (see Hybridism).