Xanthene, C13H100, may be synthesized by condensing phenol with ortho-cresol in the presence of aluminium chloride.
The crude cresol obtained from tar cannot be separated into its different constituents by fractional distillation, since the boiling points of the three isomers are very close together.
Ortho-cresol, CH 3 (1) C 6 H 4.
Meta-cresol,CH 3 (r) C 6 H 4.
OH(3), is formed when thymol (paraisopropyl-meta-cresol) is heated with phosphorus pentoxide.
Propylene is liberated during the reaction, and the phosphoric acid ester of meta-cresol which is formed is then fused with potash.
Para-cresol, CH 3 (1) C 6 H 4.