The abortive insurrection of 1780-82, led by the Inca Tupac Amarti, was never a general rising, and was directed rather against Creole tyranny than against Spanish rule.
He showed the same merciless spirit in dealing with the Cubans; and he certainly cleared two-thirds of the island of Creole bands, and stamped out disaffection.
His attitude in the so-called "Creole Case" attracted particular attention.
The Creoles (Criallos) or American-born Spaniards had for long been aggrieved at being shut out from all important official positions, and at the restrictions placed upon their trade, but the bulk of the Creole population was not disloyal.
The Creole class is, however, diminishing, though slowly, and the most numerous section of the population is of Indian blood.
But his measures speedily gave dissatisfaction to the Argentine or Creole party, who had long chafed under the disabilities of Spanish rule, and who now felt themselves no longer bound by ties of loyalty to a country which was in the possession of the French armies.
The chief was the Creole jealousy of the Spanish immigrants.
The population of European blood, which calls itself Creole, is greater than that of any other tropical colony; many of the inhabitants trace their descent from ancient French families, and the higher and middle classes are distinguished for their intellectual culture.
There were in addition several epidemics of small-pox and plague, and from about 1880 onward the continual decline in the price of sugar seriously affected the islanders, especially the Creole population.
He was then cleansed and re-clothed, his room cleaned, and during the day he was visited by his new attendant, a creole and a compatriot of Josephine de Beauharnais, named Jean Jacques Christophe Laurent (1770--1807), who had from the 8th of November onwards assistance for his charge from a man named Gomin.
There is no doubt that the men who led the Creole opposition contemplated independence, and this gives the incident peculiar interest.
Perhaps a closer approximation would be to rate the creole element (whites of European descent) at 10%, as in Colombia, and the mixed races at 70%, the remainder consisting of Africans, Indians and resident foreigners.
He entered the colonial army of Spain as a cadet in 1810, and served as one of the Creole supporters of the Spanish government till 1821.
But there were about a dozen intermediate " named varieties," of which the salto-atras (tending away from white) and tente en l'aire (tending towards white) may be mentioned; and many of the last named eventually passed into the Creole class, sometimes by the decree of a court.
The Indo-Mauritians are now dominant in commercial, agricultural and domestic callings, and much town and agricultural land has been transferred from the Creole planters to Indians and Chinese.
White men, who take proper precautions, and are not chronically soaked with cane-spirit, stand the climate perfectly, but the creole whites are still too much caballeros to devote themselves to agricultural work.
Before it could be promulgated, the tidings came of a separatist rising in the old haunts of Creole disaffection near Santiago de Cuba.
San Martin, the military leader of Buenos Aires in the revolt, was the son of a Spanish army officer and a Creole mother, and he is quoted as the example of thousands.
Great questions were at that time open between the two countries - the north-eastern boundary, the affair of M ` Leod, the seizure of American vessels on the coast of Africa, in the course of a few months the affair of the "Creole," to which was soon added the Oregon question.