Among these the cremation ceremonies are especially conspicuous.
Cremation took the place of burial of the dead.
Cremation is always present.
In Beowulf cremation is represented as the prevailing custom.
One or two vases are found in each barrow, ornamented with finger-imprints, string decoration, &c. The later period is characterized by the practice of cremation, though the remains are still placed in harrows.
In the early iron age there is less uniformity, some districts apparently favouring cremation and others inhumation.
Pre-eminent among these is the discovery, by Mr William Peppe, on the Birdpur estate, adjoining the boundary between English and Nepalese territory, of the stupa, or cairn, erected by the Sakiya clan over their share of the ashes from the cremation pyre of the Buddha.
The account of the death and cremation of the Buddha, preserved in the Buddhist canon, states that one-eighth portion of the ashes was presented to the Sakiya clan, and that they built a thupa, or memorial mound, over it.'
Crematoria are provided at certain of the companies' cemeteries, and the Cremation Act 1902 enabled borough councils to provide crematoria.
A group of Italic cremation tombs a pozzo of the Villanova period were found under the pavement of the medieval Vicolo del Campidoglio.
But after cremation came in a mourning procession of servants and chiefs carrying the body to the funeral pyre to be burnt by the demondressed priests, after which the crowd of wives and slaves were exhorted to serve their lord faithfully in the next world, were sacrificed and their bodies burnt.
It is worth noting that a number of specimens were found in the cremation cemetery at Borgstedterfeld near Rendsburg.
- Both inhumation and cremation were practised in heathen times.
Cremation makes its appearance first in the earlier part of the bronze age, and in the latter part of that age practically displaces the older rite.
After the 6th century cremation seems not to have been common, if we may trust the sagas, but isolated instances occur as late as the 10th century.
It is to be observed that cremation and the use of the barrow are not mutually exclusive, for cremated remains, generally in urns, are often found in barrows.
A special form of funeral rite peculiar to the North was that of cremation on a ship. Generally the ship was drawn up on land; but occasionally we hear, in legendary sagas, of the burning ship being sent out to sea.
See also the articles Annuity; Capital Punishment; Cremation; Insurance; Medical, Jurisprudence, &C.
In this last necropolis cremation seems slightly to precede inhumation in date.
The graves of the period contain urns of earthenware or glass, cremation being the prevalent practice, and the objects found include one or more coins in accordance with Roman usage.
While cremation is rare in the long barrows of the south of England, it is the rule in those of Yorkshire and the north of Scotland.
It was the natural result of the practice of cremation, however, that it should induce a modification of the barrow structure.
The degradation of the chamber naturally produced a corresponding degradation of the mound which covered it, and the barrows of the Bronze Age, in which cremation was common, are smaller and less imposing than those of the Stone Age, but often surprisingly rich in the relics of the life and of the art workmanship of the time.
In these mounds cremation appears more frequently than inhumation; and both are accompanied by implements, weapons and ornaments of stone and bone.
The dead were buried in an extended position, while in the preceding Bronze Age cremation had been the rule.
The exact form of the sanctuary at that period cannot be determined, but it seems to have been in some way connected with the burning of the dead, and extensive remains of such cremation are found in all the earlier, pre-Sargonic strata.
The graves at Hallstatt were partly inhumation partly cremation; they contained swords, daggers, spears, javelins, axes, helmets, bosses and plates of shields and hauberks, brooches, various forms of jewelry, amber and glass beads, many of the objects being decorated with animals and geometrical designs.
A crematorium was completed in 1909, and cremation instead of interment has since been urged by the District commissioners.
Among the places where these have been found, special mention should be made of the large cremation cemetery at Borgstedterfeld, between Rendsburg and EckernfOrde, which has yielded many urns and brooches closely resembling those found in heathen graves in England.
The Bronze Age is also characterized by the fact that cremation was the mode of disposal of the dead, whereas in the Stone Age burial was the rule.
At the LeMoyne crematory established here by Dr Francis Julius LeMoyne,' on the 6th of December 1876, took place the first public cremation in the United States; the body burned was that of Baron Joseph Henry Louis de Palm (1809-1876), a Bavarian nobleman who had emigrated to the United States in 1862 and had been active in the Theosophical Society in New York.
They occur, with one exception, south of the Ouse, the most important being a cemetery at Kempston, where two systems - cremation and earth-burial - are found side by side.
In 1889 he entertained at Hissarlik a committee of archaeological experts, deputed to examine B6tticher's absurd contention that the ruins represented not a city, but a cremation necropolis; and he was contemplating a new and more extensive campaign on the same site when, in December 1890, he was seized at Naples with an illness which ended fatally on the morning of Christmas Day.
The statue had consecrated the site of Caesar's cremation.