We are accustomed to regard the whole conception of creeds, i.e.
When Count Roger at last found himself lord of the whole island, he found himself lord of men of various creeds and tongues, of whom his own Norman followers were but one class out of several.
(3) Traces of customs, creeds, rituals, &c., in the Aegean area at a later time, discordant with the civilization in which they were practised and indicating survival from earlier systems. There are also possible linguistic and even physical survivals to be considered.
In doctrine, the Army is in harmony with the main principles of the evangelical bodies, "as embodied in the three creeds of the Church."
P. Schaff, Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches, p. 197.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
By the law of 1905 all the churches ceased to be recognized or supported by the state and became entirely separated therefrom, while the adherents of all creeds were permitted to form associations for public worship (associations cultuelles), upon which the expenses of maintenance were from that time to devolve.
The fathers of the first six or seven centuries, so far as they agree, may be fairly taken to represent the main stream of Christian tradition and belief during the period when the apostolic teaching took shape in the great creeds and dogmatic decisions of Christendom.
It contented itself with reaffirming the Nicene and Constantinopolitan creeds and the Ephesine formula of 431, and accepting, only after examination, the Christological statement contained in the Epistola Dogmatica of Leo I.
The protective instinct was responsible for much of this interference with the natural impulse of men of various creeds towards mutual esteem and forbearance.
Though the outbreak was unconnected with the religious feud, the latent fanaticism of both creeds was soon aroused, and the island once more became a scene of pillage and devastation.
The term " Catholic " does not occur in the old Roman symbol; but Professor Loofs includes it in his reconstruction, based on typical phrases in common use at the time of the ante-Nicene creeds of the East.
The universal sanction of their beliefs, as firmly as did the adherents of " the old religion "; they included the Catholic creeds, definitions formulated by the universal church, in their service books; they too appealed, as the fathers of Basel and Constance had done, from the papal monarchy to the great ecclesiastical republic. The Church of England at least, emphasizing her own essential catholicity, retained in her translations of the ancient symbols the word catholic " instead of replacing it by " universal."
See P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, i.
This belief is, of course, not specifically Christian; it has been held at all times and everywhere by men of the most various races and creeds; and, if there be any validity in the contention that that is true which has been held semper, ubique, et ab omnibus, no fact is better established.
None of them possesses an overwhelming majority, but perfect equality is granted to all religious creeds legally recognized.
The island is the see of a bishop, who, with the clergy of all creeds, is paid by the government.
It also supplies a reason for including in our survey of creeds some reference to pre-Christian hymns and beliefs.
4 Space does not permit enlargement on this theme, but enough has been said to introduce the direct study of the ancient creeds of Christendom.
THE Ancient Creeds Of Christendom.
- The three creeds which may be called oecumenical, although the measure of their acceptance by the universal church has not been uniform, represent three distinct types provided for the use of the catechumen, the communicant, and the church teacher respectively.
The following form which Seeberg gives as the creed of St Paul is an artificial combination of fragments of oral teaching, which naturally reappear in the teaching of St Peter, but finds no attestation in the later creeds of particular churches which would prove its claim to be their parent form: " The living God who created all things sent His Son Jesus Christ, born of the seed of David, who died for our sins according to the scriptures, and was buried, who was raised on the third day according to the scriptures, and appeared to Cephas and the XI I., who sat at the Der Katechismus der Urchristenheit, p. 85.
Belief in the fact of the Incarnation of the eternal Word, as it is stated in the words of Ignatius quoted above, or in any of the later creeds, stands or falls with belief in the Holy Ghost as the guide alike of their convictions and destinies, no mere impersonal influence, but a living voice.
1 While all critics agree in tracing back this form to the earliest years of the 2nd century, and regard it as the archetype of all similar Western creeds, there is great diversity of opinion on its relation to Eastern forms. Kattenbusch maintains that the Roman Creed reached Gaul and Africa in the course of the 2nd century, and perhaps all districts of the West that possessed Christian congregations, also the western end of Asia Minor possibly in connexion with Polycarp's visit to Rome A.D.
Further, he holds that all the Eastern creeds which are known to us as existing in the 4th century, or may be traced back to the 3rd, lead to Antioch as their startingpoint.
272, and was adapted to the dogmatic requirements of the time, all the later creeds of Palestine, Asia Minor and Egypt being dependent on it.
Along similar lines Loofs selects phrases as typical of creeds which go back to a date preceding the Nicene Council.
Loofs thinks that the baptismal creeds on which they are based may have contained the words).
I) does not attempt a reconstruction on this elaborate scale, but contents himself with pointing out evidence, which Kattenbusch seems to him to have missed, for the existence of creeds of Egypt, Cappadocia and Palestine before the time of Aurelian.
Two newly-discovered creeds help us greatly to narrow down the limits of the problem.
It is important as connecting the creeds of East and West.
One of the signatories of the Definition of Faith made at Chalcedon, in which both creeds were quoted in full, Kalemikus, bishop of Apamea in Bithynia, refers to the council of Constantinople as having been held at the ordination of the most pious Nektarius the bishop. Obviously there was some connexion in his mind between the creed and the ordination.
The main difference between these, the first of a long series of articles of religion and the ancient creeds, lies in the fact that they are manifestoes embodying creeds and answering more than one purpose.
As has been well said by a learned Baptist theologian, Dr Green: " It was by a true divine instinct that the early theologians made Christ Himself, in His divine-human personality, their centre of the creeds."' The fundamental questions of Christianity, exhibited in theApostles' Creed, should be marked In response to an invitation issued by the archbishop of Canterbury, acting on a resolution of the Lambeth Conference of 1908, a committee of eminent scholars met in April and May 1909 for the purpose of preparing a new translation.
The very intensity of that phase of modern thought which declaims fervently against all creeds, and would maintain what George Eliot called " the right of the individual to general haziness," is likely to draw all Christian thinkers nearer to one another in sympathy through acceptance of the Apostles' Creed as the common basis of Christian thought.
This justification of the ancient creeds carries with it the justification of later confessions so far as they answered questions which would be fatal to religion if they were not answered.
Gibson, The Three Creeds (1908); F.
The confession of faith issued by the London-Amsterdam church (the original of the Pilgrim Fathers' churches) in 1596 declares that the Christian congregation having power to elect its minister has also power to excommunicate him if the case so require (Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism, p. 66).
And thus from 1879 dates the triangular rivalry of the creeds of Anglican and Roman Christianity and of Islam.
The chiefs of the rival creeds - British (Anglicans), French (Catholics), and Ba-Islamu, as they were called - divided thechiefships.
At a later period, however, the difficulty of screening the rites of baptism and Eucharist from the eyes of catechumens and from their ears the creeds and liturgies - a difficulty which had ever been formidable and which after the overthrow of paganism must have become insurmountable - seems to have provoked not only a great outpouring on the part of the Christian rhetors, like Basil, Chrysostom, the Gregories and the Cyrils, of phrases borrowed from the Greek mysteries, but perhaps an actual use of precautions.
Representatives of all the new creeds hastened from the Continent to England, where they hoped to find a safe and fertile field for the particular seed they had to plant.
The Latin edition declares that although this new statement of the elements of the Christian faith differs from the articles of other Christian creeds it is not to be mistaken for a challenge.
The former was their creeds, the latter their cults or worships.
It need hardly be said that the exact accuracy of such narratives is not an essential part of the Christian faith; no such doctrine is laid down by the creeds and confessions.
That characteristic Protestant assertion had been still earlier pushed to the front in " Reformed " creeds, e.g.
Protestant creeds had clearly affirmed that nothing possessed authority which was not in Scripture: in a short time, Protestant theologians - following an impulse common to all Christian communions - define more sharply the - identity of what is authoritative with the letter of Scripture, and call these entire contents dogmas.
Kirche, and Zwingliana, P. Schaff, Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches, p. 211.
Considering, then, his other differences from Anabaptist theories, and the absence of any hint to the contrary in his own autobiographical references, " it is safe to affirm that he had no conscious indebtedness to the Anabaptists " (Williston Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congreg., New York, 1893, p. 16).
As regards the " Declaration of Faith, Church Order and Discipline " adopted in 1833, and still printed in the official Year Book " for general information " as to " what is commonly believed " by members of the Union, what is characteristic is the attitude taken in the preliminary notes to " creeds and articles of religion."
Important documents for Congregational Faith and Order, with historical introductions, are printed in Williston Walker's Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (New York, 1893).
Of course neither of these creeds was in the least binding upon ministers or upon churches, except so far as in each instance they might be voluntarily adopted.
The creeds and confessions do not formulate any authoritative doctrine of angels; and modern rationalism has tended to deny the existence of such beings, or to regard the subject as one on which we can have no certain knowledge.
Ff., 843 ff.; for canons and abridged translation used by the Reformed Church in America, P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom (3rd ed., New York, 1877), 55 o ff.
Bishop Brooks taught me no special creed or dogma; but he impressed upon my mind two great ideas--the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, and made me feel that these truths underlie all creeds and forms of worship.
In less developed creeds the difference tends to remain in the background; but where sacrifices are found, solemn annual rites, communal, purificatory or expiatory, are celebrated, and these are held to be in like manner obligatory.
And creeds were treated impartially; and, although the administration has been reproached alike for undue harshness and undue leniency, neither accusation can be sustained.