From its pleasant situation in a hilly, wooded district near the headwaters of the Cray stream, Orpington has become in modern times a favourite residential locality for those whose business lies in London.
Navigation is also carried on by the Medway to Tonbridge, on the lower parts of the Darent and Cray, from Dartford and Crayford, and on the Wey up to Guildford and Godalming.
Thele is no lobster on the coasts of Japan, but there are various species of cray-fish (Palinurus and Scyliarus) the principal of which, under the names of ise-ebi (Palinurus japonicus) and kuruma-ebi (Penaeus canaliculatus) are greatly prized as an article of diet.
Among the principal modern industries are paper-making, carried on on the banks of the Darent, Medway, Cray and neighbouring streams; engineering, chemical and other works along the Thames; manufactures of bricks, tiles, pottery and cement, especially by the lower Medway and the Swale.
The municipal boroughs are Bromley (pop. 27,354), Canterbury, a city and county borough (24,889), Chatham (37,057), Deal (10,581), Dover (4 1, 794), Faversham (11,290), Folkestone (30,650), Gillingham (42,530), Gravesend (27,196), Hythe (5557), Lydd (2675), Maidstone (33,516), Margate (23,118), New Romney (1328), Queenborough (1544), Ramsgate (2 7,733), Rochester, a city (30,590), Sandwich (3170), Tenterden (324.3), Tunbridge Wells (33,373) The urban districts are Ashford (12,808), Beckenham (26,331), Bexley (12,918), Broadstairs and St Peter's (6466), Cheriton (7091), Chislehurst (7429), Dartford (18,644), Erith (25,296), Foots Cray (5817), Herne Bay (6726), Milton (7086), Northfleet (12,906), Penge (22,465), Sandgate (2294), Sevenoaks (8106), Sheerness (18,179), Sittingbourne (8943), Southborough (6977), Tonbridge (12,736), Walmer (5614), Whitstable (7086), Wrotham (3571).
Originally a stronghold of the Cray family, it has passed through the D'Arenbergs to its present owners, the princes of Caraman-Chimay.
Sir Francis's great-great-great-grandfather, Alan, was a cordwainer of Gracechurch Street; Alan's son Thomas, a vintner, purchased Scadbury in Chislehurst, and Thomas's great-grandson William bought Foot's Cray, where Francis may have been born.
The town obtains its chief supply of water from moorlands situated on the Old Red Sandstone formation in the valley of the Cray, a tributary of the Usk in Breconshire where a reservoir of 1,000,000,000 gallons capacity has been constructed at a cost of £547,759, under parliamentary powers obtained in 1892, 1902 and 1905.
Swansea obtains its chief supply from a reservoir of one thousand million gallons constructed in 1898-1906 on the Cray, a tributary of the Usk.