Osborn, "The Cranial Evolution of Titanotherium," Bull.
The sternum has no keel, and ossifies from lateral and paired centres only; the axes of the scapula and cora.coid have the same general direction; certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike those possessed by the next order - the vomer, for example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and pterygoids; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected; there is no syrinx or inferior larynx; and the diaphragm is better developed than in other birds.'
The skull is high, with -the facial and cranial portions approximately equal.
Its bulk alone (equal to that of an orange) causes serious disturbances, and its choice of the liver, kidneys, lungs, cranial cavity and other deep-seated recesses, gives rise to profound alterations.
Squamosal small, intercalated in the cranial wall: Ilysiidae.
The skull as a whole is greatly elongated, chiefly in consequence of the immense size of the face as compared with the hinder or true cranial portion.
Owing to this joint the whole upper beak can be moved up and down with extra facility, according to the shoving forwards or backwards of the palato-pterygo-quadrate apparatus which moves sledge - like upon the cranial basis.
Huxley, " On the Classification of Birds and on the Taxonomic Value of the Modifications of certain of the Cranial Bones..."
There are five pairs of larger sacs belonging to the pulmonary system: - (1) prebronchial or cervical, extending sometimes far up the neck, even into the cranial cavities; the throat-bags of the prairie fowls (Cupidonia and Pedioecetes) are a further development; (2) subbronchial or interclavicular; (3 and 4) anterior and posterior thoracic or intermediate; (5) abdominal sacs.
The cranial measurements of the Malays and an examination of their hair sections seem to bear out the theory that they are distinct from the Mongolian races.
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
The facial portion of the skull is generally shorter than the cranial; the orbit is freely open behind; and the premaxillae tend to be reduced and fused with the nasals.
The post-glenoid process is small, and the facial and cranial portions of the skull are approximately of equal length.
The integuments of the head are divided into non-imbricate shields or plates, symmetrically arranged, but not corresponding in size or shape with the underlying cranial bones or having any relation to them.
The squamosals form part of the cranial wall, being firmly wedged in between the quadrate, prootic and occipital bones.
Pennanti), the martens are much alike in size, general colouring and cranial and dental characters.
The comparison of cranial indexes is rendered difficult by intentional flattening of the forehead and undesigned flattening of the occiput by the hard cradle-board.
In its structure and cranial capacity it is entitled to a higher place in the zoological scale than any anthropoid, for it almost certainly walked erect; and, on the other hand, in its intellectual powers it must have been much below the lowest of the human race at present known.
These rodents are characterized by the imperfectly rooted cheek-teeth, imperfect clavicles or collar-bones, cleft upper lip, rudimentary first front-toes, smooth soles, six teats and many cranial characters.
Macrotis of Sumatra, both externally very like Atherura, but differing from the members of that genus in many cranial characteristics.
But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.
Presumably the presence of osteoderms and of complete cranial arches are more archaic than their absence, just as we conclude that limbless forms have been evolved from various groups possessed of fully developed limbs.
- Pleurodont; tongue very short and scaly; no osteoderms; supratemporal fossa roofed over by the cranial bones; eyes devoid of movable lids; tympanum exposed; femoral pores present; limbs and tail well developed.
In its tertiary stages - and also earlier - this disease yields in the most rapid and unmistakable fashion to iodides; so much so that the administration of these salts is at present the best means of determining whether, for instance, a cranial tumour be syphilitic or not.
Garson, "On Cranial Characters of the Natives of Timor-Laut," Journ.
It is thought to depend upon some connexion, not yet anatomically demonstrated, between the third cranial nerve and its nucleus in the floor of the iter and the substantia nigra.
From remains of the age of the IVth Dynasty he is able to define to some extent the type of the population of Lower Egypt as having a better cranial and muscular development than that of Upper Egypt, probably through immigration from Syria.
This can be experimentally shown - by the method of exclusion - to be caused by a paralysis of the terminals of the third cranial nerve in the sphincter pupillae of the iris.
Either we must regard Merycodus as a deer which parallels the antelopes and the prongbuck in every detail of skeletal structure, or else, like the prongbuck, an antelope separated from the main stock at a date sufficiently early to have permitted the development of a distinct type of cranial appendages, namely, antlers in place of true horns.
On the latter view Merycodus, the prongbuck (Antilocapra) and the antelopes must be regarded as representing three branches from an original common stock, divergent as regards the structure of their cranial appendages, but parallel in other respects.
The skull generally resembles that of Camelus, the relatively larger brain-cavity and orbits and less developed cranial ridges being due to its smaller size.
Classification of races on cranial measurements has long been attempted by eminent anatomists, and in certain cases great reliance may be placed on such measurements.
6.) As stated above in the definition of the order, the Stegocephalia have retained most of the cranial bones which are to be found in the Crossopterygian fishes, and it is worthy of note that the bones termed post-temporals may give attachment to a further bone so prolonged backwards as to suggest the probability of the skull being connected with the shoulder-girdle, as in most teleostome fishes.
As in fishes also, the sensory canal system must have been highly developed on the skulls of many labyrinthodonts, and the impressions left by these canals have been utilized by morphologists for homologizing the various elements of the cranial roof with those of Crossopterygians.
As regards the inner ear, the endolymphatic duct ends in a closed saccus, imbedded in the dura mater of the cranial cavity.
Parker ("On the Cranial Osteology, Classification and Phylogeny of the Dinornithidae," Tr.