But almost everywhere the vegetation serves to smooth the contours of the rugged hills, ferns, mosses and shrubs growing wherever their roots can cling, and leaving only the steepest crags uncovered to form, as in Tahiti, a striking contrast.
The upper city is built on three hills, which rise as steep crags 400 ft.
It was the middlemost and the highest of the three steep crags which rise from the valley of the Kur, at some distance to the west or north-west of Nakshi Rustam.
Ducks, divers, geese, gulls, all the Russian species of snipes and sandpipers (Limicolae, Tringae), &c., swarm on the marshes of the tundras and on the crags of the Lapland coast.
The crags which he flung at Britannia did indeed graze the stern and graze the prow of her craft.
Facing the crags on the south-west are the spots familiar to readers of The Heart of Midlothian, where stood Jeanie Deans's cottage, and between the crags and Arthur's Seat lies Hunter's Bog, used as a shooting range.
Both are deeply grooved in places, and the crags give a hilly aspect to the districts in which they occur.
As far up as Hawes, the dale presents a series of landscapes in which the broken limestone crags of the valley-walls and the high-lying moors beyond them contrast finely with the rich land at the foot of the hills.
Having left the tree-line far behind him, nothing is visible to the traveller for miles around but barren peaks and torn crags in indescribable confusion.
Naked crags, when they do appear, lift themselves from a sea of green, and a tropical vegetation, quite Malaysian in character, covers everything.
East of Wasdale lies the range of Scafell (q.v.), its chief points being Scafell (3162 ft.), Scafell Pike (3210), Lingmell (2649) and Great End (2984), while the line is continued over Esk Hause Pass (2490) along a fine line of heights (Bow Fell, 2960; Crinkle Crags, 2816), to embrace the head of Eskdale.
The line then descends to Wrynose Pass (1270 ft.), from which the Duddon runs south through a vale of peculiar richness in its lower parts; while the range continues south to culminate in the Old Man of Coniston (2633) with the splendid Dow Crags above Goats Water.
East of the Rothay valley and Thirlmere lies the mountain mass including Helvellyn (3118 ft.), Fairfield (2863) and other points, with magnificent crags at several places on the eastern side towards Grisedale and Patterdale.
All the mountains offer easy routes to pedestrians, but some of them, as Scafell, Pillar, Gable (Napes Needle), Pavey Ark above Langdale and Dow Crags near Coniston, also afford ascents for experienced climbers.
Under the protection of the hill-fort, a native settlement was established on the ridge running down to the valley at the foot of Salisbury Crags, and another hamlet, according to William Maitland (1693-1757), the earliest historian of Edinburgh, was founded in the area at the northwestern base of the rock, a district that afterwards became the parish of St Cuthbert, the oldest in the city.
The famous Falls of Lodore, at the upper end of the lake, consist of a series of cascades in the small Watendlath Beck, which rushes over an enormous pile of protruding crags from a height of nearly 200 ft.
Near the Giant's Causeway are the ruins of the castles of Dunseverick and Dunluce, situated high above the sea on isolated crags, and the swinging bridge of Carrick-a-Rede, spanning a chasm 80 ft.
The town consists of two parts - the old or lower town, on the banks of the Byk, and the new or upper town, situated on high crags, 450 to Soo ft.
The cliffs and overhanging crags at Noup Head (250 ft.), the most westerly point, are remarkably picturesque.
They all present, which must be of assistance to the animal in steadying it in its agile bounds among the crags of its native haunts.
Except in Limburg, where, in the neighbourhood of Maastricht, the upper layers of the chalk are exposed and followed by Oligocene and Miocene beds, the whole of Holland is covered by recent deposits of considerable thickness, beneath which deep borings have revealed the existence of Pliocene beds similar to the " Crags " of East Anglia.
The rocks project in innumerable bosses and crags, which roughen the sides and crests of the ridges.
Almost all the eminences in the Lowlands consist of hard igneous rocks, forming not only chains of hills such as those just mentioned and others in Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, but isolated crags and hills like those on which stand the castles of Edinburgh and Stirling, and others conspicuous in the scenery of Fife and the Lothians.
Where the rock projects it more usually appears in low crags and knolls, from which long trails of grey or purple debris descend till they are lost among the grass.
In the heights of Harden (2651 ft.) and Whitecoomb (2695), whence the Clyde, Tweed, Annan, and Moffat Water descend, the high moorlands have been scarped into gloomy corries, with crags and talus-slopes, which form a series of landscapes all the more striking from the abrupt and unexpected contrast which they offer to everything around them.
These various rocky masses, presenting great differences in their powers of resisting decay, have yielded unequally to disintegration: the harder portions project in rocky knolls, crags and cliffs, while the softer parts have been worn down into more flowing outlines.
Every distinct variety of rock has its own type of corrie, the peculiarities being marked both in the details of the upper cliffs and crags, and in the amount, form and colour of the screes.
Most of the hills and crags in the Carboniferous area are volcanic, and many of them - such as the castle rocks of Edinburgh and Stirling, Binny Craig in Linlithgowshire, North Berwick Law and the Bass Rock - mark the sites of actual events of eruption.
A part of the little Pamir is included in Afghan territory, but the boundary crosses this Pamir before the great bend northwards of the Aksu takes place, and, passing over a series of crags and untraversable mountain ridges, is lost on the Chinese frontier in the 66° Longitude East 68° of Greenwich 7e snowfields of Sarikol.
It lies in a basin among granite hills, nowhere exceeding 2627 ft., remarkable for their denudation and their abrupt black crags and pinnacles.
The fossils from the Rhaetic beds belong to the Avicula contorta zone, those from the Lias to the Ammonites angulatus zone, while the blocks of limestone with chert contain Inoceramus, Cretaceous foraminifera and other organisms. The materials yielding these fossils are embedded in a course volcanic agglomerate which gives rise to crags and is pierced by acid and basic igneous ricks.
Various hawks and owls are common; the golden eagle nests on the mountain crags and the burrowing owl on the plains.
Enclosed between the Taurus and Amanus ranges and the sea are the fertile plains of Cilicia Pedias, consisting in great part of a rich, stoneless loam, out of which rise rocky crags that are crowned with the ruins of Greco-Roman and Armenian strongholds, and of Pamphylia, partly alluvial soil, partly travertine, deposited by the Taurus rivers.
Immediately on the west of the Kaisargarh there towers the Shingarh Mountain, a geological repetition of the Kaisargarh ridge, black with pines towards the summit and crowned with crags of coral limestone.
Such is the scene which Solomon is said to have invited his Indian bride to gaze upon for the last time, as they rested on the crags of the southern buttress of the Takhtwhere his shrine exists to this day.
The crags of the E.
But in the eastern and southern counties the Chalk is covered by younger deposits of Tertiary age; the Pliocene Crags of Norfolk and Suffolk, the Lower London Tertiaries (London Clay, Woolwich and Reading Beds, &c.) of the London Basin comprising parts of Essex, Hertfordshire, Middlesex, Bucks and Berks, and northern Kent.
The western and eastern shores consist of boulder clay, as well as a narrow strip on the southern shore, south of which runs a ridge of crags of Silurian sandstones.
Back from the Main, but leave only a very narrow strip of low ground alongside the Rhine, and from Bingen downwards they overhang it with precipitous crags, many of which are crowned with picturesque ruins.
The steep crags of the western end of the Taunus, where they abut upon the Rhine, are rich in the romantic associations of the great river.
In height, which descends by steep crags to the sea, and on the other side is continuous with the level of the "black earth" steppe.
They are indeed exceedingly beautiful; and yet the surrounding waste of hills is chiefly a barren repetition of sun-cracked crags and ridges with parched and withered valleys intersecting them, where a trickle of salt water leaves a white and leprous streak amongst the faded tamarisk or the yellow stalks of last season's grass.
From Seatoller in Borrowdale a road traverses Honister Pass (1100 ft.), whence it descends westward, beneath the majestic Honister Crags, where green slate is quarried, into the valley containing Buttermere (94 ft.
It is separated from the narrow valley, in which lie the Canongate and Holyrood Palace, by Salisbury Crags, named after Edward III.'s general William Montacute, 1 st earl of Salisbury (1 3 01 - 1 344).
At the base of the Red Crag in East Anglia, and occasionally at the base of the other Pliocene Crags, there is a " nodule bed," consisting of phosphatic nodules, with rolled teeth and bones, which were formerly worked as " coprolites " for the preparation of artificial manure.
Wasdale Head, between Gable and the Scafell range, is peculiarly grand, with dark grey screes and black crags frowning above its narrow bottom.
Upon this limestone plateau there is a central area of high ridges, among them the rough crags of Harney, Custer and Dodge peaks.
The surface of the harra is extremely broken, forming a labyrinth of lava crags and blocks of every size; the whole region is sterile and almost waterless, and compared with the Nafud it produces little vegetation; but it is resorted to by the Bedouin in the spring and summer months when the air is always fresh and cool.
This is the most beautiful part of the whole course of the river, abounding in ruined castles, romantic crags and sunny vineyards.
Its eastern half is studded with isolated rocky crags, which are crowned with the ruins of ancient strongholds, and broken by the low hills that border the plain of Issus.
Thus the artificial lakes and hills, the stones forming rockeries or simulating solitary crags, the trees and even the bushes are all selected or manipulated so as to fall congruously into the general scheme.