Sculpture exhibited realistic vigour of indubitably native stamp; and the minor plastic crafts were cultivated with success on lines of striking originality.
The displays of fruit and vegetables, homemade food, crafts, and other items soon enthralled her.
S Out of the vast mass of undifferentiated powers certain functional deities appear; and the Kami of Japan to-day who preside over the gilds and crafts of industry and agriculture, over the trees and grasses of the field, the operations of the household, and even the kitchenrange, the saucepan, the rice-pot, the well, the garden, the scarecrow and the privy, have their counterparts in the lists of ancient Rome, the indigitamenta over whose contents Tertullian and Augustine made merry.
Crafts), C6H6+CH3COCl == HCl + C6H5COCH3.
In 1862 he prepared secondary propyl alcohol, and in 1863, with James Mason Crafts (b.
In 1877, with Crafts, he made the first publication of the fruitful and widely used method for synthesizing benzene homologues now generally known as the "Friedel and Crafts reaction."
Crafts, printed in the Journal of the London Chemical Society for 1900.
George Schwanhart, a pupil of Caspar Lehmann, started glass-cutting at Ratisbon, and about 1690 Stephen Schmidt and Hermann Schwinger introduced the crafts of cutting and engraving glass in Nuremberg.
To the Germans must be credited the discovery, or development, of colourless potash-lime glass, the reintroduction of the crafts of cutting and engraving on glass, the invention by H.
The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.
In some of the larger towns the crafts were prominent already in the 13th century, but they became much more prominent in the first half of the r4th century.
In short, the function of guarding and supervising the trade monopoly split up into various fragments, the aggregate of the crafts superseding the old general gild merchant.
While in most towns the name and the old organization of the gild merchant thus disappeared and the institution was displaced by the aggregate of the crafts towards the close of the middle ages, in some places it survived long after the 15th century either as a religious fraternity, shorn of its old functions, or as a periodical feast, or as a vague term applied to the whole municipal corporation.
There is no exact parallel in England to the conflict between these two classes in Scotland in the 16th century, or to the great continental revolution of the 13th and 14th centuries, by which the crafts threw off the yoke of patrician government and secured more independence in the management of their own affairs and more participation in the civic administration.
True, there were popular uprisings in England, but they were usually conflicts between the poor and the rich; the crafts as such seldom took part in these tumults.
In some towns all the crafts were thus consolidated into a single fraternity; in this case a body was reproduced which regulated the whole trade monopoly of the borough, and hence bore some resemblance to the old gild merchant.
Laws were passed, for example in 1503, requiring that new ordinances of "fellowships of crafts or misteries" should be approved by the royal justices or by other crown officers; and the authority of the companies to fix the price of wares was thus restricted.
Next must be mentioned the Kunstgewerbe (museum of arts and crafts) and the Musical Museum, with valuable MSS.
On the outskirts of the city, near Eastlake Park, is the Indian Crafts Exhibition, which contains rare collections of aboriginal handiwork, and where Indians may be seen making baskets, pottery and blankets.
It is a modern commercial town, having a school of arts and crafts, several churches, and large government yards for the building of river steamers, lighters and tug-boats.
There are schools for higher education at Batavia, Surabaya and Semarang; at the first two of these towns are government schools for mechanical engineering, and at Batavia a crafts school and a medical school for natives.
Private mechanical and crafts schools are established at Jokjakarta, Surabaya and Semarang, and there is an agricultural school at Buitenzorg.
Of these the most important are the Idadieh school, the school of arts and crafts, the Jewish communal school; the Greek college, Zappeion; the Imperial Ottoman Bank and Tobacco Regie; a fire-tower; a theatre; palaces for the prefect of the city, the administrative staff of the second army corps and the defence works commission; a handsome row of barracks; a military hospital; and a French hospital.
31) on condition of paying part of the produce to their new lords, who x1.13 a took the other third, and agriculture and commerce with all the arts and crafts of peaceful life remained entirely in their hands.
The Lipscani was originally the street of merchants who obtained their wares from the annual fair at Leipzig; for almost all crafts or gilds, other than the bakers and tavern-keepers, were long confined to separate quarters; and the old names have survived, as in the musicians', furriers', and money-changers' quarters.
De Roever (Amsterdam, 1883-1886), containing miscellaneous contributions to the history of ancient Dutch art, crafts and letters.
(I) free assistance funds (Fre-ie H-ilfskassen), either registered under the law of f 876, as modified in 1884 (Eingeschriebene Hilfskassen), or established under the law of the separate states (landesrechtliche Hilfskassen); (2) Betriebs- or Fabrikkrankenkassen, funds established by individual factory-owners; (3) Baukrankenkasse, a fund established for workmen engaged on the construction (Bau) of particular engineering works (canal-digging, &c), by individual contractors; (4) gild sick funds (Innungskrankenhassen), established by the gilds for the workmen and apprentices of their members; (5) miners sick fund (Knappschaftskasse); (6) local sick fund (Ortskrankenkasse), established by the commune for particular crafts or classes of workmen; (7) Gemeindekrankenversicherung, i.e.
The procedure in scientific excavation is directed to collecting and interpreting all the information that can he obtained from the excavation as to the history and nature of the site explored, be it town, temple, house, cemetery or individual grave, wasting no evidence that results from it touching the endless problems which scientific archaeology affordswhether in regard to arts and crafts, manners and customs, language, history or beliefs.
At one end of the scale were certain outlying tribes and certain hereditary crafts of a dirty or despised kind.
Technical instruction is given in the agricultural schools; in various arts and crafts institutes, such as those of Bucharest and Jassy; in the veterinary and engineering colleges of Bucharest; in numerous commercial schools, and in schools of domestic economy for girls.
Anthropological researches undertaken all over the globe have shown the necessity of abandoning the old theory that a similarity of customs and superstitions, of arts and crafts, justifies the assumption of a remote relationship, if not an identity of origin, between races.
Municipal organization, never quite forgotten, naturally revived under new forms, and with its "consuls" at the head of the citizens, with its "arts" and "crafts" and "gilds," grew up secure under the shadow of the church.
In London the victory of the crafts is decisively marked by the ordinance of the time of Edward II., which required every citizen to be a member of some trade or mystery, and by another ordinance in 1375 which transferred the right of election of corporate officers (including members of parliament) from the ward-representatives to the trading companies.
Ploesci possesses schools of commerce and of arts and crafts, several banks, and many synagogues and churches, including the Orthodox church of St Mary built in 1740 by Matthew Bassarab.
How, then, was the distribution of crafts and habitual occupations of all kinds brought about?
The industries of the natives are confined to such crafts as spinning and weaving and dyeing, the manufacture of iron weapons and implements, boatand shipbuilding, &c. More particularly in the southeastern division, and especially in the districts of Negara, Banjermasin, Amuntai and Martapura, shipbuilding, ironforging, goldand silversmith's work, and the polishing of diamonds, are industries of high development in the larger centres of population.
Other officers were the Burggraf 2 or praefectus for military matters, including the preservation of the town's defences, walls, moat, bridges and streets, to whom also appertained some jurisdiction over the craft-gilds in matters relating to their crafts; further the customs-officer or teleonarius and the mint-master or monetae magister.
By and by these crafts or "offices" claimed the right of electing their master and of assisting him in examining the goods, and even of framing by-laws regulating the quality of the wares and the process of their manufacture.
It is not suggested that in each individual town the rise of the gilds was preceded by an organization of crafts on the part of the lord and his officers; but it is maintained that as a general thing voluntary organization could hardly have proceeded on such orderly lines as on the whole it did, unless the framework had in the first instance been laid down by the authorities: much as in modern times the working together in factories has practically been an indispensable preliminary to the formation of trade unions.
Against this state of things the crafts rebelled, alleging mismanagement, malversation and the withholding of justice.