Coxal glands have since been recognized and described in other Arachnida.
In 1900 it was shown that the coxal gland of Limulus is provided with a very delicate thin-walled coiled duct which opens, even in the adult condition, by a minute pore on the coxa of the fifth leg (Patten and Hazen, 13A).
Previously to this, Lankester's pupil Gulland had shown (1885) that in the embryo the coxal gland is a comparatively simple tube, which opens to the exterior in this position and by its other extremity into a coelomic space.
Similar observations were made by Laurie (17) in Lankester's laboratory (1890) with regard to the early condition of the coxal gland of Scorpio, and by Bertkau (41) as to that of the spider Atypus.
The name " coxal gland " needs to be carefully distinguished from " crural gland," with which it is apt to be confused.
The coxal glands of the Arachnida are structures of the same nature as the green glands of the higher Crustacea and the so-called " shell glands " of the Entomostraca.
The latter open at the base of the fifth pair of limbs of the Crustacean, just as the coxal glands open on the coxal joint of the fifth pair of limbs of the Arachnid.
The genital ducts of Arthropoda are, like the green glands, shell glands and coxal glands, to be regarded as coelomoducts (gonocoels).
The coxal glands do not establish any special connexion between Limulus and Scorpio, since thay also occur in the same somite in the lower Crustacea, but it is to be noted that the coxal glands of Limulus are in minute structure and probably in function more like those of Arachnids than those of Crustacea.
B, Coxal gland.
- The right coxal gland of Limulus polyphemus, Latr.
B, Longitudinal lobe or stolon of the coxal gland.
In the same and other leading forms a pair of much-coiled glandular tubes, the coxal glands (coelomocoels in origin), is found with a duct opening on the coxa of the fifth pair of appendages of the prosoma.
Appendages of 1st pair.tri-segmented, chelate; of 2nd pair chelate, with their basal segments subserving mastication; of 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs similar in form and function, except that in recent and Carboniferous forms the basal segments of the 3rd and 4th are provided with sterno-coxal (maxillary) lobes, those of the 4th pair meeting in the middle line and underlying the mouth.
Coxal (maxillary) process, the apical segment tipped with a single movable or immovable claw; appendages of 3rd pair different from the remainder, tactile in function, with at least the apical segment many-jointed and clawless.
Stc, Sterno-coxal process (gnathobase) of the chelae.
Appendages of 1st pair consisting of three segments, completely chelate, without poison gland; of 2nd pair slender, leg-like, tipped with three claws, the basal segment without sterno-coxal process taking no share in mastication, and widely separated from its fellow of the opposite side; 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th appendages similar in form to the 2nd and to each other.
Suctorial) organ, and no claws at the tip; their basal segments united in the middle line and furnished with sterno-coxal process.
Their anatomy has not been studied, as yet, by means of freshly-killed material, and is imperfectly known, though the presence of the coxal FIG.
O, Sterno-coxal process of the basal segment of the second appendage.
Orifice of coxal gland situated just behind that of the foetid gland.
Orifice of coxal gland situated between the coxae of the 5th and 6th appendages.
Orifice of coxal gland probably situated at base of coxa of 5th appendage; sternal plate of prosoma minute or absent; no prosternal element underlying the mouth.
Lankester, " Coxal Glands of Limulus, Scorpio and Mygale," Quart.
P. Hazen, " Development of the Coxal Glands of Limulus," Journ.
Bernard, " Coxal Glands of Scorpio," Ann.
Coxal glands: - Bertkau, "Ueber die Coxaldrusen der Arachniden," Sitzb.
Viii., 1884; Pelseneer, " On the Coxal Glands of Mygale," Proc. Zool.
As pairs in each ring-like segment or somite of the body, and some of these are in all cases retained as gonoducts and often as renal excretory organs (green glands, coxal glands of Arachnida, not crural glands, which are epidermal in origin); but true nephridia, genetically identical with the nephridia of earthworms, do not occur (on the subject of coelom, coelomoducts and nephridia, see the introductory chapter of part ii.
The five pairs of appendages of the post-oral somites of the head or prosoma thus constituted all primitively carry gnathobasic projections on their coxal joints, which act as hemignaths: in the more specialized forms the mandibular gnathobases cease to develop.
In some species certain of the legs bear on their ventral sides furrows with tumid lips and lined by smooth non-tuberculate epithelium; they are called coxal organs, and it appears that they can be everted.
A and feet with two primary papillae on the anterior side and one on the posterior side; outer jaw with one minor tooth at the base of the main tooth, inner jaw with no interval between the large tooth and the series of small ones; last fully developed leg of the male with enlarged crural gland opening on a large papilla placed on its ventral surface; coxal organs absent; the nephridial openings of the 4th and 5th pairs of legs are placed in the proximal spinous pad.
The following species are aberrant in respect of these characters: Peripatus (Opisthopatus) cinctipes, Purcell (Cape Colony and Natal), presents a few Australasian features; there is a small receptaculum seminis on each oviduct, some of the legs are provided with welldeveloped coxal organs, the feet have one anterior, one posterior and one dorsal papilla, and the successive difference in the ages of the embryos in the uterus, though nothing like that found in the neotropical species, is slightly greater than that found in other investigated African species.
P. tholloni, Bouvier, (Equatorial West Africa [Gaboon]), shows some neotropical features; there are 24 to 25 pairs of legs, the genital opening is between the penultimate legs, and though there are only three spinous pads the nephridial openings of the 4th and 5th legs are proximal to the 3rd pad, coxal organs are present, and the jaws are of the neotropical type; the oviducts have receptacula seminis.
The mesothoracic epimera bound the coxal cavities of the intermediate legs.
- This tribe is distinguished from the Malacoderma and allied groups by the mesothoracic epimera not bounding the coxal cavities of the intermediate legs.
N.S.), and in a series of subsequent memoirs, in which the structure of the entosternum, of the coxal glands, of the eyes, of the veno-pericardiac muscles, of the respiratory lamellae, and of other parts, was for the first time described, and in which the new facts discovered were shown uniformly to support the hypothesis that Limulus is an Arachnid.
Stc, The sterno-coxal process or a, b, c, d, Movable processes on the jaw-like up-growth of the coxa.
The so-called " Coxal Glands."
A similar pair of coxal glands, lobate instead of ovoid in shape, was described by Lankester in Mygale, and it was also shown by him that the structures in Limulus called " brick-red glands " by Packard have the same structure and position as the coxal glands of Scorpio and Mygale.
Microscopically their structure is the same in essentials as that of the coxal glands of Scorpio (13).
In most cases, however, the palp loses its exopodite and it often disappears altogether, while the coxal segment forms the body of the mandible, with a masticatory edge variously armed with teeth and spines.
Last leg of the male with or without a large white papilla on its ventral surface for the opening of a gland, and marked papillae for the, crural glands are sometimes present on other legs of the male; well-developed coxal glands absent.
A variable number of posterior legs of the males anterior to the genital opening with one or two large papillae carrying the openings of the crural glands; well-developed coxal organs present on most of the legs.
- With 22 to 24 pairs of claw-bearing legs, with three spinous pads on the legs, and nephridial openings of legs 4 and 5 (sometimes of 6 also) on the proximal pad; feet with one primary papilla on the anterior, one on the posterior side, and one on the dorsal side (median or submedian); outer jaw with a minor tooth, inner jaw without diastema; crural glands absent; well-developed coxal organs absent.