The Reformed Presbyterian Church (Covenanters) sent John Cuthbertson in 1751; he was joined in 1773 by Matthew Lind and Alexander Dobbin from the Reformed Presbytery of Ireland, and they organized in March 1 774 the Reformed Presbytery of America.
In 1833 the Reformed Presbyterian Church divided into New Lights and Old Lights in a dispute as to the propriety of Covenanters exercising the rights of citizenship under the constitution of the United States.
Though in sympathy with the Covenanters, the town was the scene of few incidents comparable to those which took place in the northern parts of the shire.
In June, on the occasion of the Covenanters' rising in Scotland, he attacked Lauderdale personally in full council.
Still flushed with their victory under Dundee, and animated by bitterest hatred of their Whiggamore foes, the Highlanders assaulted the position of the Covenanters, who were 1200 strong, with the most desperate valour.
In Greyfriars' churchyard the Solemn League and Covenant was signed, and among its many monuments are the Martyrs' monument, recording the merits of the murdered covenanters, and the tomb of " Bluidy " Mackenzie.
From Carlops, and Rullion Green is noted as the field on which the Covenanters were defeated in 1666.
He returned to Scotland in 1639, and established communications with the Covenanters and the Opposition in England, and as member for Banbury in both 'the Short and Long Parliaments he took a prominent part in the attacks upon the church.
Six miles south-west of Strathaven, on the moor of Drumclog, the Covenanters defeated John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, on the 1st of June 1679.
Of Scotland is stated to have consigned certain of the insurgent nobles to its cells, and later it was used as a prison in which many of the Covenanters were immured.
The bridge near which, on the 22nd of June 1679, was fought the battle of Bothwell Bridge between the Royalists, under the duke of Monmouth, and the Covenanters, in which the latter lost 50o men and 1000 prisoners.
In 1679 the Covenanters published their "Declaration and Testimony" at Rutherglen prior to the battles of Drumclog and Bothwell Brig (1679).
In the churchyard there is a monument to four covenanters who suffered at Edinburgh, on the 7th of December 1600, whose heads were buried here.
It became a burgh of barony in 1484 and a royal burgh in 1596, and was the scene of the exhibition of the Covenanters' Declaration, attached to the market cross in 1680 by Richard Cameron and in 1685 by James Renwick.
COVENANTERS, the name given to a party which, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century.
The Covenanters were thus named because in a series of bands or covenants they bound themselves to maintain the Presbyterian doctrine and polity as the sole religion of their country.
The General Assembly of 1638 was composed of ardent Covenanters, and in 1640 the covenant was adopted by the parliament, and its subscription was required from all citizens.
Before this date the Covenanters were usually referred to as Supplicants, but from about this time the former designation began to prevail.
From 1638 to 1651 the Covenanters were the dominant party in Scotland, directing her policy both at home and abroad.
Gathering around them many of the Covenanters who clung tenaciously to their standards of faith, these ministers began to preach in the fields, and a period of persecution marked by savage hatred and great brutality began.
Further oppressive measures were directed against the Covenanters, who took up arms about 1665, and the struggle soon assumed the proportions of a rebellion.
The Covenanters had a martyrology of their own, and the halo of romance has been cast around their exploits and their sufferings.
Hewison, The Covenanters (1908).
Many Scottish Covenanters settled in the neighbourhood to avoid the persecution directed against them.
At Shaftesbury's instance he was placed in command of the army employed in 1675 against the Scottish Covenanters, and was present at Bothwell Bridge (June 22, 1679).
In a long series of crafty movements James managed to reintroduce episcopacy (1598-1600) by the aid of packed General Assemblies, later declared void by the Covenanters (1638).
Charles drove on the bishops, who better understood the situation, and he sent the half-hearted Hamilton to negotiate and threaten in Edinburgh, where the Covenanters were blockading the castle.
While Charles hung irresolute on the eastern border, the Covenanters, under Alexander Leslie, took heart, occupied Duns Law, and terrified Charles into negotiations (11th-18th June).
The English parliament, at war with the king, demanded aid from Scotland; it was granted under the conditions of the Solemn League and Covenant (1643), by which the Covenanters expected to secure the establishment of Presbyterianism in England, though the terms of agreement are dubious.
Lanark, from Oxford, fled to join the Covenanters; Charles imprisoned Hamilton in Cornwall; Montrose was made a marquis; Leslie, with a large Scottish force and 4000 horse, besieged Newcastle.
This unconcerted movement arose out of an act of cruelty by soldiers in the remote Glenkens, and was unsupported by Holland, with which the Covenanters had been intriguing.
The whole movement, intended as a return to the kirk of Knox and Melville and the Covenanters, was a not unneeded protest against the sleepy " moderation," and want of spiritual enthusiasm, which invaded the established kirk in the latter part of the 18th century, a period in which she possessed such distinguished writers as John Home, author of the drama of Douglas, Robertson, the historian, and Dr Carlyle, whose amusing autobiography draws a perfect portrait of an amiable and highly educated " Moderate " and man of the world.
The Dutch Reformed Church in the Transvaal, pervaded by a spirit and faith not unlike those which distinguished the Covenanters, was divided in the early days into three sects.
The first caliph who imposed humiliating conditions on the Dhimmis, or Covenanters, who, on condition of paying a certain not over-heavy tribute, enjoyed the protection of the state and the free exercise of their cult, was Omar II., but this policy was not continued.
CAMERONIANS, the name given to that section of the Scottish Covenanters who followed Richard Cameron, and who were chiefly found among those who signed the Sanquhar Declaration in 1680.
The engagement made with Charles, then a prisoner in the Isle of Wight in 1647, which promised him support on condition of his sanctioning the Solemn League and Covenant and pledging himself to set up after three years a church according to the Confession of Faith, was protested against by the assembly; and from this came the famous " Act of Classes " by which the Covenanters disqualified for public office and even for military service all who had been parties to the engagement.
In acting thus he did not scruple to desert his own royalist followers, and to repudiate and abandon the great and noble Montrose, whose heroic efforts he was apparently merely using in order to extort better terms from the covenanters, and who, having been captured on the 4th of May, was executed on the 21st in spite of some attempts by Charles to procure for him an indemnity.
Here in 1640 the Scottish Covenanters planted guns to protect them while fording the river, after which they defeated the English on the Durham side at Stellaheugh, and subsequently occupied Newcastle.
During the struggles between the Royalists and Covenanters the city was impartially plundered by both sides.
Among its chief features are the Virgin Martyrs' Memorial, representing in white marble a guardian angel and the figures of Margaret M`Lauchlan and Margaret Wilson, who were drowned by the rising tide in Wigtown Bay for their fidelity to the Covenant (1685);(1685); the large pyramid to the memory of the Covenanters, and the Ladies' Rock, from which ladies viewed the jousts in the Valley.
During the Civil War the Covenanters held the town, to which the committees of church and state adjourned after Cromwell's victory at Dunbar (1650), but in August next year the castle was taken by General Monk.
The only other important conflict belongs to the Covenanters' time, when the marquess of Montrose was defeated at Philiphaugh in 1645.
It was on Duns Law (700 ft.) that the Covenanters, under Alexander Leslie, were encamped in 1639, and the Covenanters' Stone on the top of the hill has been enclosed to preserve it from relic-hunters.