In the Norse version of the Carolingian epic Guillaume appears in his proper historical environment, as a chief under Charlemagne; but he plays a leading part in the Couronnement Looys, describing the formal associations of Louis the Pious in the empire at Aix (813, the year after Guillaume's death), and after the battle of Aliscans it is from the emperor Louis that he seeks reinforcements.
Le Couronnement Looys, already mentioned, Le Charroi de Nimes (12th century) in which Guillaume, who had been forgotten in the distribution of fiefs, enumerates his services to the terrified Louis, and Aliscans (r2th century), with the earlier Chanrun, are among the finest of the French epic poems. The figure of Vivien is among the most heroic elaborated by the trouveres, and the giant Rainouart has more than a touch of Rabelaisian humour.
Suchier (Soc. des anc. textes fr., 2 vols., 1898), with a Latin fragment dating from the 11th century, preserved at the Hague; Le Couronnement Looys (ed.
Basin or Carl et Elegast (preserved in Dutch and Icelandic), the Voyage de Charlemagne a Jerusalem and Le Couronnement Looys also belong to the heroic period.
After the conquest of the Saracens and the Saxons, the defeat of the Northmen, and the suppression of the feudal revolts, the emperor abdicated in favour of his son Louis (Le Couronnement Looys, 12th century).
Gautier (Paris, 1885); Basin, or Charles et Elegast or Le Couronnement de Charles, preserved only in foreign versions (see Paris, Hist.
(Appendix iv.); Couronnement Looys, ed.