Besides cottons the products 'nclude woollens and cloth, silks, chemicals, machinery, ironware, beer and flour.
Next after cottons come woollens, silk, cloth, chemicals, machinery, paper, furniture, hats, cement, leather, glass and china and other products.
The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
The river furnishes water-power, and among the manufactures of the town are shoes, machinery, cottons, brass, &c.
The principal imports are butter, woollens, timber, cereals, eggs, glass, cottons, preserved meat, wool, sugar and bacon.
It also distinguishes the true cotton from the silk cottons or flosses, the fibres of which have no twist, and do not readily spin into thread, and for this reason, amongst others, are very considerably less important as textile fibres.
The chief of these silk cottons is kapok, consisting of the hairs borne on the interior of the pods (but not attached to the seeds) of Eriodendron anfractuosum, the silk cotton tree, a member of the Bombacaceae, an order very closely allied to the Malvaceae.
During the periods the cottons have been cultivated, selection, conscious or unconscious, has been carried on, resulting in the raising, from the same stock probably, in different places, of well-marked forms, which, in the absence of the history of their origin, might be regarded as different species.
Under these circumstances it is not surprising to find that those who have paid attention to the botany of the cottons differ greatly in the number of species they recognize.
There remains one other important group, the so-called " kidney " cottons in which there are only long hairs, and the seed easily comes away clean as with " Sea Island," but, instead of each seed being separate, the whole group in each of the three compartments of the capsule is firmly united together in a more or less kidney-shaped mass.
He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G.
It yields the most valuable of all cottons, the hairs being long, fine and silky, and ranging in length from to 22 in.
Watt considers many of the Egyptian cottons to be races or hybrids of G.
It has, however, certain characteristics which cause it to be in demand even in the United States, where during recent years Egyptian cotton has comprised about 80% of all the " foreign " cottons imported.
According to Watt there are many hybrids in American cottons between G.
Amongst the cottons of this source are Hinganghat, Tinnevelly, Dharwar, Broach, Amraoti (Oomras or Oomrawattee), Kumta, Westerns, Dholera, Verawal, Bengals, Sind and Bhaunagar.
Watt dissents from this view and classes these Indian cottons as G.
The Indian cottons are usually of short staple (about 4 in.), but are probably capable of improvement.
Nothing definite can be said with regard to a rotation of crops Sea Island Cotton - Carolina Sea Island Florida „ „ Georgia „ Barbados „ „ Egyptian Cottons Yannovitch.
I 3 Good middling Texas I o Good middling Upland I o Indian Cottons Fine Tinnevelly Fine Bhaunagar Fine Amraoti Fine Broach.
Saw gins are not adapted to long-stapled cottons, such as Sea Island and Egyptian, which are generally ginned by machines of the Macarthy type.
- This is important especially in the Iong-stapled cottons, unevenness leading to waste in manufacture, and consequently to a lower price for the cotton.
- Long-stapled cottons have been produced in the States by crossing Upland and Sea Island cotton.
- High-class cottons often do not flourish if introduced into a new country.
" Rough Peruvian," the produce of one of the tree cottons, has a special use, as being rather harsh and wiry it is well adapted for mixing with wool.
In these adjoining protectorates wild cottons occur, and suitable conditions exist in certain localities.
Some of the native cottons are of fair quality, but Egyptian cotton appears likely to be best suited for growing for export.
The results of these and similar attempts led to the conclusion that efforts to improve the indigenous cottons were most likely to be rewarded with success.
The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch, and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.
This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.
The imports consist of oil, cheap cottons, shoes and other similar goods, which are taking the place of the picturesque native manufactures.
Tea makes up nearly one-half of the imports, the other commodities being silks, cottons, hides and wool; while cottons and other manufactured wares constitute considerably over 50% of the exports.
The so-called collodion cottons are nitrated celluloses, but of a lower degree of nitration (as a rule) than guncotton.
They are sometimes spoken of as "lower" or "soluble" cottons or nitrates.
The introduction of cheap cottons and silk fabrics has dealt a blow to hand-weaving, while aniline dyes are driving out the native vegetable product; but both industries still linger in the rural tracts.
Among manufactures are cottons, woollens, pottery and ironwares.
The town has considerable manufactures of cottons and hosiery, "Balbriggan hose" being well known.
Zeitz has manufactures of cloth, cottons and other textiles, machinery, wax-cloth, musical instruments, vinegar, cigars, &c.; and wood-carving, dyeing and calico-printing are carried on.
Silks, cottons, carpets, furniture, white-wood carvings and straw hats are the chief products of the local industry.
In textiles - cottons, worsteds, woollens and carpets - in boots and shoes, in rubber foot-wear, in fine writing paper, and in other minor products, it is the leading state of the country.
The manufacture of cottons, and on a smaller scale of woollens, is special to Alsace, the chief centres of the industry being Mulhausen, Colmar and the valleys of the Vosges.
And cottons, on some iron and steel manufactures.
The duties on wool were raised, corresponding changes made on woollen goods, the duties on cottons, linens, some silks, and velvets considerably raised.
The imports from India are cottons, tea, shawls and indigo.
The chief industries are the manufacture of woollens, cottons, silks, glass, laces, tobacco, straw-plait, paper, sugar and hemp, the breeding of silkworms, iron-founding and working, timber-cutting and shipbuilding.
Manufacture of woollens, cottons, Russia leather and embroidery is carried on, and there is trade in cattle, wine, tobacco, hemp, hides and grain.
In the manufacture of textiles the United States holds the second place, after Great Britain; decidedly second in cottons, a close competitor with Great Britain and France in woollens, and with France in silks.
Cotton and cottons 23,488,750 22,949,600
Cottons and yarn 992,244 1,476,385
Cottons and yarn 3,843,917 4,941,917
Of Tanta, with manufactories of silk and cottons; Salihia (6100), E.N.E.
In respect of its local industries Altona has manufactures of tobacco and cigars, of machinery, woollens, cottons and chemicals.
Owing to its position at the junction of several routes, Kerkuk has a brisk transit trade in hides, Persian silks and cottons, colouring materials, fruit and timber; but it owes its principal importance to its petroleum and naphtha springs.
Coarse cotton stuffs, chiefly of the kind called Kerbaz, used in their natural color, or dyed blue with indigo, are manufactured in all districts but not exported; cottons, called Kalamkar, which are made in Manchester and block-printed in colors at Isfahan and Kumishah, find their way to foreign markets, principally Russian.
The principal imports into Persia in approximate order of value are cottons, sugar, tea, woollens, cotton yarn, petroleum, stuffs of wool and cotton mixed, wool, hardware, ironmongery, matches, iron and steel, dyes, rice, spices and glass-wdre.
The principal exports are fruits (dried and fresh), carpets, cotton, fish, rice, gums, wool, opium, silk cocoons, skins, live animals, silks, cottons, wheat, barley, drugs and tobacco.
Tweeds, blankets, shawls, tartans, lace curtains, cottons and winceys are also produced.
The following table shows the value for five years of the exports, and of all imports not reexported (exclusive of coin and bullion): - In 1910 the principal exports, in order of value, were wine (chiefly port, common wines and Madeira), raw and manufactured cork, preserved fish, fruits and vegetables, cottons and yarn, copper ore, timber, olive oil, skins, grain and flour, tobacco and wool.
The imports consisted of cottons, woollens, live-stock, provisions, hardware and machinery, wines, spirits and clothing.
The province occupies a prominent position in Finland for its manufacture of cottons, sugar refinery, wooden goods, metals, machinery, paper, &c. Its chief towns are: Abo (pop. 42,639), BjOrneborg (16,053), Raumo (5501), Nystad (4165), Mariehamn (r171), Nadendal (917).
Other products are manna, suffron, asafoetida and other gums. The chief manufactures are swords, stoneware, carpets and rugs, woollens, cottons, silks and sheepskin pelisses (pustin, Afghan poshtin).
It is a considerable manufacturing centre for woollens, silks and cottons, electric power being furnished by the torrents descending from the mountains at the foot of which it lies.
Twothirds of the imports are from Belgium; the remainder came from Germany, Great Britain (chiefly cottons), France and Holland.
Leland in his Itinerary (1558) recorded the fact that Bolton made cottons, which were in reality woollen goods.