The alpine rose (Rhododendron dauricum) clusters in masses on the higher mountains; juniper, spiraea, sorbus, the pseudo-acacia (Caragana sibirica and C. arborescens, C. jubata in some of the higher tracts), various Rosaceae - Potentilla fruticosa and Cotoneaster uniflora - the wild cherry (Prunus Padus), and many other shrubs occupy the spaces between the trees.
Cotoneaster (some species).
Shir Khist, a manna known to writers on materia medica in the 16th century, is imported into India from Afghanistan and Turkestan to a limited extent; it is the produce of Cotoneaster nummularia (Rosaceae), and to a less extent of Atraphaxis spinosa (Polygonaceae); it is brought chiefly from Herat.
Americana, Cephalaria tatarica, Cotoneaster pyracantha, Citrus aurantium, Diospyros ebenum, Ficus carica, Illicium anisatum, Ligustrum caucasicum, Punica granatum, Philadelphu.s coronarius, Pyrus salicifolia, Rhus cotinus and six species of Viburnum.
In England, for instance, it includes Acer monspessulanum, a southern maple which does not now extend nearer than central Europe, and Cotoneaster Pyracantha; also Najas graminea and N.