During the rebellion of the Cossack chief, Bogdan Chmielnicki (1640), the Poles took it by assault, killing 14,000 persons and burning 5000 houses.
1 The Cossack kosh, or commonwealth, had the privilege of electing its hetman, or chief, and his chief officers, the starshins.
This further act of repression led to two terrible Cossack risings, in 1635 and 1636, put down only with the utmost difficulty, whereupon the diet of 1638 deprived the Cossacks of all their ancient privileges, abolished the elective hetmanship, and substituted for it a commission of Polish noblemen with absolute power, so that the Cossacks might well declare that those who hated them were lords over them.
The prime mover of the great rebellion of 1648, which shook the Polish state to its very foundations, was the Cossack Bohdan Chmielnicki (q.v.), who had been initiated in all the plans of Wladislaus IV.
To save himself he hit upon the novel and terrible expedient of uniting the Tatars and the Cossacks Cossack in a determined onslaught upon the Republic, whose Rebellion of inward weakness, despite its brave outward show, 1648.
He made Chigirin, his native place, the Cossack capital, subdivided the country into sixteen provinces, and entered into direct relations with foreign powers.
But fortune, so long Bohdan's friend, now deserted him, and at Beresteczko (July I, 1651) the Cossack chieftain was utterly routed by Stephen Czarniecki.
Dying in 1868, soon after completing a history of the Cossack wars, Dwa lata dziejow naszych (" Two Years of Our History").
The church of the Tithes, rebuilt in 1828-1842, was founded in the close of the 10th century by Prince Vladimir in honour of two martyrs whom he had put to death; and the monastery of St Michael (or of the Golden Heads - so called from the fifteen gilded cupolas of the original church) claims to have been built in 1108 by Svyatopolk II., and was restored in 1655 by the Cossack chieftain Bogdan Chmielnicki.
Among the more notable names are those of Nestor the chronicler, and Iliya of Murom, the Old Cossack of the Russian epics.
1671), Cossack hetman and rebel, whose parentage and date and place of birth are unknown.
In 1670 Razin, while ostensibly on his way to report himself at the Cossack headquarters on the Don, openly rebelled against the government, captured Cherkask, Tsaritsyn and other places, and on the 24th of June burst into Astrakhan itself.
All who opposed him, and giving the rich bazaars of the city over to pillage, he converted Astrakhan into a Cossack republic, dividing the population into thousands, hundreds and tens, with their proper officers, all of whom were appointed by a vyecha or general assembly, whose first act was to proclaim Stephen Timofeevich their gosudar (sovereign).
After a three weeks' carnival of blood and debauchery Razin quitted Astrakhan with two hundred barges full of troops to establish the Cossack republic along the whole length of the Volga, as a preliminary step towards advancing against Moscow.
Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he had not the means to enter the St Petersburg University, he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work.
For some time he was aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia at Chita, subsequently being appointed attaché for Cossack affairs to the governor-general of East Siberia at Irkutsk.
His first military service at home was against the Cossack rising of Nalewajko as lieutenant to Zolkiewski, and he subsequently assisted Zamoyski in his victorious Moldavian campaign.
The inhabitants (33,000), are mostly Little-Russians and Jews; there are also some Greeks, descendants of those who immigrated in the 17th century at the invitation of the Cossack chieftain Bogdan Chmielnicki.
In 1649, after the revolt of Little Russia and its liberation from the Polish rule, Nyezhin was the chief town of one of the most important Cossack regiments.
At the commencement of the reign of the tsar Nicholas II., in 1895, the Doukhobors became the victims of a series of persecutions, Cossack soldiers plundering, insulting, beating and maltreating both men and women in every way.
As one of the largest proprietors in the Ukraine he suffered severely from Cossack depredations and offered many concessions to them.
In 1794 on the site of an old town called Tmutarakan, as a small fort and Cossack settlement, its population grew from 9620 in 1860 to 65,697 in 1897.
The approaches to Cossack, North Australia; Cape St Francis, Labrador; the coasts of Madagascar and Iceland, are remarkable for such disturbance of the compass.
He commanded the Caucasian Cossack Brigade in the attack of the Green Hills at the second battle of Plevna.
In October 1878 some cases appeared in the stanitza or Cossack military settlement of Vetlanka, 130 m.
He gave the reins to a Cossack, took off and handed over his felt coat, stretched his legs, and set his cap straight.
Alley! said the Cossack, touching the prisoner's arm to make him go on.
He's not there himself, so you'll have to go in and ask the princesses; and from there go on to the Rasgulyay--the coachman Ipatka knows--and look up the gypsy Ilyushka, the one who danced at Count Orlov's, you remember, in a white Cossack coat, and bring him along to me.
On the previous day Platov reconnoitered with two Cossack regiments and two squadrons of hussars.
Just before him, almost across the middle of the passage on the bare floor, lay a sick man, probably a Cossack to judge by the cut of his hair.
Only recently, talking with one of Platov's Cossack officers, Rostov had argued that if Napoleon were taken prisoner he would be treated not as a sovereign, but as a criminal.
After a while "Uncle" came in, in a Cossack coat, blue trousers, and small top boots.
When campaigning, Rostov allowed himself the indulgence of riding not a regimental but a Cossack horse.
Napoleon smiled and told them to give the Cossack a horse and bring the man to him.
Yes, a Cossack, your Honor.
"The Cossack, not knowing in what company he was, for Napoleon's plain appearance had nothing about it that would reveal to an Oriental mind the presence of a monarch, talked with extreme familiarity of the incidents of the war," says Thiers, narrating this episode.
"The young Cossack made his mighty interlocutor smile," says Thiers.
"As soon as Napoleon's interpreter had spoken," says Thiers, "the Cossack, seized by amazement, did not utter another word, but rode on, his eyes fixed on the conqueror whose fame had reached him across the steppes of the East.
Napoleon, after making the Cossack a present, had him set free like a bird restored to its native fields.
He's coming! shouted a Cossack standing at the gate.
A Cossack patrol would have sufficed to observe the enemy.
He was driving toward Pierre in a covered gig, sitting beside a young surgeon, and on recognizing Pierre he told the Cossack who occupied the driver's seat to pull up.
An adjutant accompanied by a Cossack passed by at a sharp trot.
The general mounted a horse a Cossack had brought him.
On the nearest one sat a Tartar, probably a Cossack, judging by the uniform thrown down beside him.
And strange to say, the Governor of Moscow, the proud Count Rostopchin, took up a Cossack whip and went to the bridge where he began with shouts to drive on the carts that blocked the way.
On the second of October a Cossack, Shapovalov, who was out scouting, killed one hare and wounded another.
The Cossack laughingly told his comrades how he had almost fallen into the hands of the French.
The Cossack was sent for and questioned.
"Why, there, over at Echkino," said a Cossack officer, pointing to a country house in the far distance.