The government is well provided with schools, especially on the Cossack territory.
During the rebellion of the Cossack chief, Bogdan Chmielnicki (1640), the Poles took it by assault, killing 14,000 persons and burning 5000 houses.
The church of the Tithes, rebuilt in 1828-1842, was founded in the close of the 10th century by Prince Vladimir in honour of two martyrs whom he had put to death; and the monastery of St Michael (or of the Golden Heads - so called from the fifteen gilded cupolas of the original church) claims to have been built in 1108 by Svyatopolk II., and was restored in 1655 by the Cossack chieftain Bogdan Chmielnicki.
Tell the Cossack to fetch my kit.
1 The Cossack kosh, or commonwealth, had the privilege of electing its hetman, or chief, and his chief officers, the starshins.
This further act of repression led to two terrible Cossack risings, in 1635 and 1636, put down only with the utmost difficulty, whereupon the diet of 1638 deprived the Cossacks of all their ancient privileges, abolished the elective hetmanship, and substituted for it a commission of Polish noblemen with absolute power, so that the Cossacks might well declare that those who hated them were lords over them.
The prime mover of the great rebellion of 1648, which shook the Polish state to its very foundations, was the Cossack Bohdan Chmielnicki (q.v.), who had been initiated in all the plans of Wladislaus IV.
To save himself he hit upon the novel and terrible expedient of uniting the Tatars and the Cossacks Cossack in a determined onslaught upon the Republic, whose Rebellion of inward weakness, despite its brave outward show, 1648.
He made Chigirin, his native place, the Cossack capital, subdivided the country into sixteen provinces, and entered into direct relations with foreign powers.
But fortune, so long Bohdan's friend, now deserted him, and at Beresteczko (July I, 1651) the Cossack chieftain was utterly routed by Stephen Czarniecki.
Dying in 1868, soon after completing a history of the Cossack wars, Dwa lata dziejow naszych (" Two Years of Our History").
Among the more notable names are those of Nestor the chronicler, and Iliya of Murom, the Old Cossack of the Russian epics.
1671), Cossack hetman and rebel, whose parentage and date and place of birth are unknown.
In 1670 Razin, while ostensibly on his way to report himself at the Cossack headquarters on the Don, openly rebelled against the government, captured Cherkask, Tsaritsyn and other places, and on the 24th of June burst into Astrakhan itself.
All who opposed him, and giving the rich bazaars of the city over to pillage, he converted Astrakhan into a Cossack republic, dividing the population into thousands, hundreds and tens, with their proper officers, all of whom were appointed by a vyecha or general assembly, whose first act was to proclaim Stephen Timofeevich their gosudar (sovereign).
After a three weeks' carnival of blood and debauchery Razin quitted Astrakhan with two hundred barges full of troops to establish the Cossack republic along the whole length of the Volga, as a preliminary step towards advancing against Moscow.
Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he had not the means to enter the St Petersburg University, he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work.
His first military service at home was against the Cossack rising of Nalewajko as lieutenant to Zolkiewski, and he subsequently assisted Zamoyski in his victorious Moldavian campaign.
The inhabitants (33,000), are mostly Little-Russians and Jews; there are also some Greeks, descendants of those who immigrated in the 17th century at the invitation of the Cossack chieftain Bogdan Chmielnicki.
In 1649, after the revolt of Little Russia and its liberation from the Polish rule, Nyezhin was the chief town of one of the most important Cossack regiments.
At the commencement of the reign of the tsar Nicholas II., in 1895, the Doukhobors became the victims of a series of persecutions, Cossack soldiers plundering, insulting, beating and maltreating both men and women in every way.
As one of the largest proprietors in the Ukraine he suffered severely from Cossack depredations and offered many concessions to them.
In 1794 on the site of an old town called Tmutarakan, as a small fort and Cossack settlement, its population grew from 9620 in 1860 to 65,697 in 1897.
The approaches to Cossack, North Australia; Cape St Francis, Labrador; the coasts of Madagascar and Iceland, are remarkable for such disturbance of the compass.
He commanded the Caucasian Cossack Brigade in the attack of the Green Hills at the second battle of Plevna.
In October 1878 some cases appeared in the stanitza or Cossack military settlement of Vetlanka, 130 m.
De la langue franraise), and the Cossack horseman may have given to the West both the garment and the name.
Cherkasy was an important town of the Ukraine in the 15th century, and remained so, under Polish rule, until the revolt of the Cossack hetman Chmielnicki (1648).
The Russian mission of 1879 has been the most successful, and the so-called Cossack brigade which it formed has always been commanded by Russian officers.
Every Cossack is bound to procure his own uniform, equipment and horse (if mounted) - the government supplying only the arms. Those on active service are divided into three equal parts according to age, and the first third only is in real service, while the two others stay at home, but are bound to march out as soon as an order is given.
The officers are supplied in the usual way by the military schools, in which all Cossack voiskos have their own vacancies, or are non-commissioned Cossack officers, with officers' grades.
The total Cossack population in 1893 was 2,648,049 (1,331,470 women), and they owned nearly 146,500,000 acres of land, of which 105,000,000 acres were arable and 9,400,000 under forests.
The income which the Cossack voiskos receive from the lands which they rent to different persons, also from various sources (trade patents, rents of shops, fisheries, permits of gold-digging, &c.), as also from the subsidies they receive from the government (about £712,500 in 1893), is used to cover all the expenses of state and local administration.
In time of war the ten Cossack voiskos are bound to supply 890 mounted sotnias or squadrons (of 125 men each), 108 infantry sotnias or companies (same number), and 236 guns, representing 4267 officers and 177,100 men, with 170,695 horses.
NIKOLAI MIKHAILOVICH PRJEVALSKY [PRZHEVALSKYI (1839-1888), Russian traveller, born at Kimbory, in the government of Smolensk, on the 31st of March 183 9, was descended from a noble Cossack family.
Matthias repulsed his powerful rival, Basil the Wolf, the voivode of Moldavia and his Tatar and Cossack allies.
Bogdan, after learning to read and write, a rare accomplishment in those days, entered the Cossack ranks, was dangerously wounded and taken prisoner in his first battle against the Turks, and found leisure during his two years' captivity at Constantinople to acquire the rudiments of Turkish and French.
On returning to the Ukraine he settled down quietly on his paternal estate, and in all probability history would never have known his name if the intolerable persecution of a neighbouring Polish squire, who stole his hayricks and flogged his infant son to death, had not converted the thrifty and acquisitive Cossack husbandman into one of the most striking and sinister figures of modern times.
Failing to get redress nearer home, he determined to seek for justice at Warsaw, whither he had been summoned with other Cossack delegates to assist Wladislaus IV.
Chmielnicki, now doubly hateful to the Poles as being both a royalist and a Cossack, was again maltreated and chicaned, and only escaped from gaol by bribing his gaolers.
Thirsting for vengeance, he fled to the Cossack settlements on the Lower Dnieper and thence sent messages to the khan of the Crimea, urging a simultaneous invasion of Poland by the Tatars and the Cossacks (1647).
He gave the reins to a Cossack, took off and handed over his felt coat, stretched his legs, and set his cap straight.
Alley! said the Cossack, touching the prisoner's arm to make him go on.
On the previous day Platov reconnoitered with two Cossack regiments and two squadrons of hussars.
Just before him, almost across the middle of the passage on the bare floor, lay a sick man, probably a Cossack to judge by the cut of his hair.
Only recently, talking with one of Platov's Cossack officers, Rostov had argued that if Napoleon were taken prisoner he would be treated not as a sovereign, but as a criminal.
After a while "Uncle" came in, in a Cossack coat, blue trousers, and small top boots.
When campaigning, Rostov allowed himself the indulgence of riding not a regimental but a Cossack horse.
Napoleon smiled and told them to give the Cossack a horse and bring the man to him.
Yes, a Cossack, your Honor.
"The Cossack, not knowing in what company he was, for Napoleon's plain appearance had nothing about it that would reveal to an Oriental mind the presence of a monarch, talked with extreme familiarity of the incidents of the war," says Thiers, narrating this episode.
"As soon as Napoleon's interpreter had spoken," says Thiers, "the Cossack, seized by amazement, did not utter another word, but rode on, his eyes fixed on the conqueror whose fame had reached him across the steppes of the East.
Napoleon, after making the Cossack a present, had him set free like a bird restored to its native fields.
He's coming! shouted a Cossack standing at the gate.
A Cossack patrol would have sufficed to observe the enemy.
He was driving toward Pierre in a covered gig, sitting beside a young surgeon, and on recognizing Pierre he told the Cossack who occupied the driver's seat to pull up.
An adjutant accompanied by a Cossack passed by at a sharp trot.
The general mounted a horse a Cossack had brought him.
On the nearest one sat a Tartar, probably a Cossack, judging by the uniform thrown down beside him.
And strange to say, the Governor of Moscow, the proud Count Rostopchin, took up a Cossack whip and went to the bridge where he began with shouts to drive on the carts that blocked the way.
On the second of October a Cossack, Shapovalov, who was out scouting, killed one hare and wounded another.
The Cossack laughingly told his comrades how he had almost fallen into the hands of the French.
"Why, there, over at Echkino," said a Cossack officer, pointing to a country house in the far distance.
After much disputing and arguing, Major-General Grekov with two Cossack regiments decided to go with the Polish sergeant.
"Hurrah-ah-ah!" reverberated in the forest, and the Cossack companies, trailing their lances and advancing one after another as if poured out of a sack, dashed gaily across the brook toward the camp.
The battle of Tarutino obviously did not attain the aim Toll had in view--to lead the troops into action in the order prescribed by the dispositions; nor that which Count Orlov-Denisov may have had in view-- to take Murat prisoner; nor the result of immediately destroying the whole corps, which Bennigsen and others may have had in view; nor the aim of the officer who wished to go into action to distinguish himself; nor that of the Cossack who wanted more booty than he got, and so on.
Toward midnight Bolkhovitinov, having received the dispatch and verbal instructions, galloped off to the General Staff accompanied by a Cossack with spare horses.
Others consisted solely of Cossack cavalry.
"But Komarov and I"--he pointed to the Cossack--"were prepared.
A Cossack dismounted, lifted the boy down, and took him to Denisov.
In the passage of the small watchhouse a Cossack with sleeves rolled up was chopping some mutton.
Would you like some?... and Petya ran out into the passage to his Cossack and brought back some bags which contained about five pounds of raisins.
And Petya gave the Cossack a detailed account not only of his ride but also of his object, and why he considered it better to risk his life than to act "just anyhow."
The Cossack bent forward from under the wagon to get a closer look at Petya.
The Cossack was sharpening the saber under the wagon.
Perhaps it was just the Cossack, Likhachev, who was sitting under the wagon, but it might be the kindest, bravest, most wonderful, most splendid man in the world, whom no one knew of.
Denisov was angry with the Cossack because the saddle girths were too slack, reproved him, and mounted.
Having reached the valley, Denisov looked back and nodded to a Cossack beside him.
The Cossack raised his arm and a shot rang out.
On the bridge he collided with a Cossack who had fallen behind, but he galloped on.
On the opposite side stood Dolokhov's Cossack, counting the prisoners and marking off each hundred with a chalk line on the gate.
Towards the end of his life Ivan was partially consoled for his failure in the west by the unexpected acquisition of the kingdom of Siberia in the east, which was first subdued by the Cossack hetman Ermak or Yermak in 1581.
From 1651 the town was subject alternately to Poland and to independent hetmans (Cossack chiefs).
The Cossack Simon Dezhneff is thought to have made a voyage, in the summer of 1648, from the river Kolyma, through Bering Strait (which was rediscovered by Vitus Bering in 1728) to Anadyr.
They are larger, but still small, in White Russia, Lithuania and the region of the lakes; but in the steppe governments they are very appreciably bigger, some of the Cossack stanitsas or settlements exceeding 20,000, and many of them numbering more than 10,000 inhabitants each.
The three Baltic provinces, the nine western governments annexed from Poland by Catherine II., and the Cossack provinces of the Don, Astrakhan, Orenburg and Stavropol.
Apart from the schools under the ministry of war (Cossack voiskos and schools at the barracks), the great bulk of the primary schools are either under the ministry of public instruction or of the Holy Synod.
The Bashkirs, Meshcheryaks and Teptyars rendered able service to the Russian government against the Khirgiz, and until 1863 they constituted a separate Cossack army.
Polish proprietors settled in large numbers on the Cossack territory, and great efforts were made, with the assistance of the Jesuits, to bring the Orthodox population under papal authority.
For some time Tsar Alexius hesitated, because he knew that intervention could entail a war with Poland, but after consulting a National Assembly on the subject, he decided to take Little Russia under his protection, and in January 1654 a great Cossack assembly ratified the arrangement, on the understanding that a large part of the old local autonomy should be preserved.
In 1773 a Don Cossack called Pugachev, who was so uneducated that he could not even sign the manifestoes written for him, declared himself to be Peter III., and announced that he was going to St Petersburg to punish his faithless wife and place his son Paul on the throne.
Another cause may be sought in the Cossack assaults on the Jews at an earlier period.
79) where he represented himself as the natural arbiter in the immense struggle of the present against the past, and asserted that in to I years' time Europe would be either Cossack or republican.
In cavalry they were weak, for the Russian does not take kindly to equitation and the horses were not equal to the accepted European standard of weight, while the Cossack was only formidable to stragglers and wounded.
While still in her teens, she made a lover of Alexius Shubin, a sergeant in the Semenovsky Guards, and after his banishment to Siberia, minus his tongue, by order of the empress Anne, consoled herself with a handsome young Cossack, Alexius Razumovski, who, there is good reason to believe, subsequently became her husband.
Serfs in the imperial mines were liberated and organized in Cossack regiments (the Transbaikal Cossacks); some of these were settled on the Amur, forming the Amur and Usuri Cossacks.
In the same year in which Khabarov explored the Amur (1648) the Cossack Dejnev, starting from the Kolyma, sailed round the north-eastern extremity of Asia through the strait which was rediscovered and described eighty years later by Bering (1728).
"Ataman" or "hetman" is also the name of the elected elder of the stanitsa, the unit of Cossack administration.
Many of the Cossack stanitsas (villages) are very populous.
Platov (a Cossack chief) and T.
Wide suburbs extend to the S.W., and the right bank of the Aksai is dotted with the villas of the Cossack officials.
A Yakutsk Cossack, named Vaghin, wintered on Bolshoy in 1712, but it was a merchant, Lyakhov, who first described the two greater islands of this group in 1770, and three years later reached on sledges the largest island of the New Siberia group, which he named Kotelnyi.
The origin of the Cossack state is still somewhat obscure, but the germs of it are visible as early as the beginning of the 16th century.
Ultimately the island of Hortica, just below the falls of the Dnieper, was fixed upon as their headquarters; and on the numerous islands of that broad river there gradually arose the famous Cossack community known as the Zaporozhskaya Syech, or Settlement behind the Falls, whence the Dnieperian Cossacks were known, generally, as Zaporozhians, or Backfallsmen.
Cossack brigade, artillery, horse and foot.
(Marya Dmitrievna always called Natasha a Cossack) and she stroked the child's arm as she came up fearless and gay to kiss her hand.
"Cossack!" she said threateningly.
A Cossack who accompanied him had handed him a knapsack and a flask, and Nesvitski was treating some officers to pies and real doppelkummel.
He looked back laughing to the Cossack who stood a few steps behind him holding two horses by their bridles.
"What a fine fellow you are, friend!" said the Cossack to a convoy soldier with a wagon, who was pressing onto the infantrymen who were crowded together close to his wheels and his horses.
"It's as if a dam had burst," said the Cossack hopelessly.
"Hey, Cossack, my horse!" he said.
The imposing figure of Nesvitski followed by his Cossack, and the determination of Denisov who flourished his sword and shouted frantically, had such an effect that they managed to squeeze through to the farther side of the bridge and stopped the infantry.
At the foot of the hill lay wasteland over which a few groups of our Cossack scouts were moving.
A group of Cossack scouts retired down the hill at a trot.
After him the stout Nesvitski came galloping up on a Cossack horse that could scarcely carry his weight.
Prince Andrew took a horse and a Cossack from a Cossack commander, and hungry and weary, making his way past the baggage wagons, rode in search of the commander-in-chief and of his own luggage.
The accountant stopped, facing the Cossack, and examined him with attentive curiosity.
The Cossack was dead, but the horse still struggled.
The Cossack was sent for and questioned.