During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
The former is divided into two sections: the first, of a metaphysical character, contains a sort of practical cosmography, chiefly based on Avicenna's theories, but frequently intermixed both with the freer speculations of the well-known philosophical brotherhood of Basra, the Ikhwan-es-safa'i, and purely Shiite or Isma`ilite ideas; the second, or ethical section of the poem, abounds in moral maxims and ingenious thoughts on man's good and bad qualities, on the necessity of shunning the company of fools and double-faced friends, on the deceptive allurements of the world and the secret snares of ambitious craving for rank and wealth.
Next in importance to history rank geography, cosmography, and travels (for instance, the Nuzhat-uli~ulub, by liamdallah MustaufI, who died in 1349, and the translations of Istakhris and KazvInIs Arabic works), and the various tadhkiras or biographies of ~fis and poets, with selections in prose and verse, from the oldest of AufI (about 1220) to the last and largest of all, the Makhzan-ulg/zaraib, or Treasure of Marvellous Matters (completed 1803), which contains bi)graphies and specimens of more than 3000 poets.
From the time the law of Copernicus was discovered and proved, the mere recognition of the fact that it was not the sun but the earth that moves sufficed to destroy the whole cosmography of the ancients.
It is distinguished from cosmography by dealing Cluverius.
Term which appears to have been introduced by Linnaeus, and was reinvented as a substitute for the cosmography of the middle ages by Professor Huxley.
Adversus Paganos, 1844); besides the Old and New Testaments, he appears to have consulted Caesar, Livy, Justin, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus and a cosmography, attaching also great value to Jerome's translation of the Chronicles of Eusebius.
C. 1349), best known by his Cosmography, wrote a Chronicle which has been printed in Egypt.
In 1887 in 3 vols., and used even by Protestant missionaries) and a cosmography (Iche fang wai ki Hang-chow, 1623, 6 vols.), which was translated into Manchu under the title The True Origin of io,000 Things, a copy of which was sent from Pekin to Paris in 1789.