In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.
In 1508 Alonso de Ojeda obtained the government of the coast of South America from Cabo de la Vela to the Gulf of Darien; Ojeda landed at Cartagena in 1510, and sustained a defeat from the natives, in which his lieutenant, Juan de la Cosa, was killed.
Catulus defeated him at the Mulvian bridge and near Cosa in Etruria, and Lepidus made his escape to Sardinia, where he died soon afterwards.
Coruncanius triumphed over the people of Vulsinii and Volci in 280 B.C., and the colony of Cosa was founded in their territory.
The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (150o), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East.
Thus we find Paciolus calling it l'Arte Magiore; ditta dal vulgo la Regula de la Cosa over Alghebra e Almucabala.
The name l'arte magiore, the greater art, is designed to distinguish it from l'arte minore, the lesser art, a term which he applied to the modern arithmetic. His second variant, la regula de la cosa, the rule of the thing or unknown quantity, appears to have been in common use in Italy, and the word cosa was preserved for several centuries in the forms toss or algebra, cossic or algebraic, cossist or algebraist, &c. Other Italian writers termed it the Regula rei et census, the rule of the thing and the product, or the root and the square.
In Etruscan and Roman times the Maremma was a populous and fertile coast plain, with considerable towns situated on the hills - Populonia, Russellae, Cosa, &c., and was drained by a complete system of subterranean canals which were brought to light by the excavations made in connexion with the railways passing through the district.
It ran from Rome to Alsium, where it reached the sea, and thence along the south-west coast of Italy, perhaps originally only as far as Cosa, and was later extended to Vada Volaterrana, and in 109 B.C. to Genua and Dertona by means of the Via Aemilia, though a coast road as far as Genua at least must have existed long before.
Its line is in the main closely followed by the modern coast highroad; cf., however, for the section between Cosa and Populonia, O.
De Cosa, 1905); Excavations of the American School of Athens at the Heraion of Argos (1892); and numerous reports and articles in the American Archaeological Journal since 1892.
If the particle describes a horizontal circle of angular radius a with constant angular velocity f~, we have 0=0, h=c~ sin a, and therefore f~f-cosa, (25)
Rutilius even exaggerates the desolation of the once important city of Cosa in Etruria,.