The history of the settlement begins in 1784, but the port was already important at that time for a trade in woods and fruits; French and English corsairs resorted thither for ship-building woods.
These corsairs, for such they were, were known by the name of Sea-Beggars (Gueux-de-Mer).
1156), elected doge in 1148, waged war with success against the Dalmatian corsairs, recapturing Pola and other Istrian towns from them.
Meanwhile French corsairs from St Malo and Dieppe had been active in infesting the West Indies and the trade route followed by the Spanish convoys.
Here a remnant of the Borinquenos, assisted by the Caribs, maintained a severe struggle with the conquerors, but in the end their Indian allies were subdued by English and French corsairs, and the unfortunate natives of Porto Rico were left alone to experience the full effect of forced labour, disastrous hurricanes, natural plagues and new diseases introduced by the conquerors.
But Suleiman, who needed the aid of the corsairs against Malta, pardoned him, and he was given the command of the expedition against Tripoli, which he captured.
In his reign the Cossacks were driven from Azov and the expedition against Crete was begun, the immediate cause being the plunder of a Turkish vessel by Maltese corsairs who took their capture to Crete.
Subsequently he commanded in the Mediterranean against the corsairs of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli with great success.
By the terms of the peace of Utrecht (1713) the fortifications were demolished and its harbour filled up, a sacrifice demanded by England owing to the damage inflicted on her shipping by Jean Bart and other corsairs of the port.
T San German was founded in 1517, was plundered by the rench in 1528, was destroyed by corsairs in 1554, and was unsuccessfully attacked by the English in 1748.
Especially valuable and lucid are the following works: Ernest Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (Berberie) (3 vols., Paris, 1891), and Histoire de l'etablissement des Arabes dans l'Afrique septentrionale selon les auteurs arabes (Paris, 1875); Stanley Lane Poole, The Barbary Corsairs (" Story of the Nations Series," London, 1890), deals in part with the history of Tunisia.
Beautiful Venetian of the noble family of Baffo, whose father had been governor of Corfu, and who had been captured as a child by Turkish corsairs and sold into the harem.
On sea the empire suffered under the ravages of the Cretan corsairs; and in 865 the first pillaging expedition of the Russians endangered the Bosporus.
In 1669 the corsairs drove out the pasha, and put into his place a dey elected by themselves.
Ships trading in the Mediterranean were seized by the corsairs, who pillaged the coasts of Europe, carried off their captives to Algiers, and destroyed the fishing and commercial settlements founded by the Marseillais on the shores of Africa.
To check the Dutch and British corsairs the Barlovento (" windward ") squadron had been set up in 1635; but the British capture of Jamaica (1655) aggravated the danger to the Spanish convoys.
The place was sacked by French and English corsairs in 1719.
It subsequently fell into the hands of Illyrian corsairs, until in 229 it was delivered by the Romans, who retained it as a naval station and gave it the rank of a free state.
Expeditions in the Hejaz and Yemen were more successful, and the conquest of Cyprus in 1571, which provided Selim with his favourite vintage, led to the calamitous naval defeat of Lepanto in the same year, the moral importance of which has often been under-estimated, and which at least freed the Mediterranean from the corsairs by whom it was infested.
Santiago was occupied and plundered by French corsairs in 1553, and again by a British military force from Jamaica in 1662.
Meanwhile the corsairs of Greece and Africa were free to raid the unprotected southern shores of Italy; and Venice was besieged with complaints from the Porte, the Vatican, the Viceroy of Naples and his sovereign, the king of Spain.
If they had been no more than what the Illyrian pirates had been in the early history of Rome, or than the Arabic corsairs were at this time in southern Europe, the disappearance of the evil would have been quickly followed by its oblivion.
The conquest of Cephalonia and Zante followed, and we find five counts of the family of Tocco holding Cephalonia, and probably Zante as well as Santa Maura, as tributary to the republic. But the footing thus gained by the Venetians was not maintained, and through the closing part of the 13th and most of the 14th century the islands were a prey by turns to corsairs and to Greek and Neapolitan claimants.
For American work see Gardner Weld Allen, Our Navy and the Barbary Corsairs (New York, 1905).
Indeed, throughout the first half of the 18th century it was on a continuous war footing against English corsairs, making reprisals on British ships and thriving at the same time on a large contraband trade with Jamaica and other foreign colonies.
And thus the Pacific, ravaged so long by this powerful and mysterious band of corsairs, was at length at peace.
Though then uninhabited there is a strong tradition, probably well founded, that the Seychelles had been from Arab times a rendezvous of the pirates and corsairs who infested the high seas between South Africa and India.
Allen's Our Navy and the Barbary Corsairs (Boston, 1905).
As early as the 10th century Sokotra was a haunt of pirates; in the r3th century Abulfeda describes the inhabitants as "Nestorian Christians and pirates" but the island was rather a station of the Indian corsairs who harassed the Arab trade with the Far East.
Two Turkish corsairs, Arouj and his brother, Khair-ed-Din (otherwise known as Barbarossa), at first established in the island of Jerba and afterwards at Jijelli, disputed with the Spaniards the dominion of the country.