In France, at the outset, no correspondents were allowed.
From that date onwards the stringency of the censorship was gradually relaxed, and the army eventually set up an organization to supply correspondents with information, so that in dealing with the German advance in the spring of 1918 they were able to write with freedom.
Two Dutch friends, Constantijn Huygens (von Zuylichem), father of the more celebrated Huygens, and Hoogheland, figure amongst the correspondents, not to mention various savants, professors and churchmen (particularly Jesuits).
Ten years before, John Worlidge, one of his correspondents, and the author of the Systema Agriculturae (1669), observes, " Sheep fatten very well on turnips, which prove an excellent nourishment for them in hard winters when fodder is scarce; for they will not only eat the greens, but feed on the roots in the ground, and scoop them hollow even to the very skin.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
A powerful revival broke out at Bala in the autumn of 1791, and his account of it in letters to correspondents, sent without his knowledge to magazines, kindled a similar fire at Huntly.
Through his correspondents in Paris, some of whom had access to Napoleon's papers, the British government was able to learn the emperor's real intentions.
1733), one of Muratori's correspondents, and Gio.
SILVESTER II., pope from 999 till 1003, and previously famous, under his Christian name of Gerbert, first as a teacher and afterwards as archbishop successively of Reims and Ravenna, was an Aquitanian by birth, and was educated at the abbey of St Gerold in Aurillac. Here he seems to have had Gerald for his abbot and Raymond for his instructor, both of whom were among the most trusted correspondents of his later life.
In the year of his marriage we find Comte writing to the most intimate of his correspondents: - " I have nothing left but to concentrate my whole moral existence in my intellectual work, a precious but inadequate compensation; and so I must give up, if not the most dazzling, still the sweetest part of my happiness."
The annual reports, of which he was the chief author, became controversial pamphlets; he published bold replies to criticisms upon the work of the Commission; he explained its purposes to newspaper correspondents; when Congress refused to appropriate the amount which he believed essential for the work, he made the necessary economies by abandoning examinations of candidates for the Civil Service in those districts whose representatives in Congress had voted to reduce the appropriation, thus very shrewdly bringing their adverse vote into disfavour among their own constituents; and during the six years of his commissionership more than twenty thousand positions for government employes were taken out of the realm of merely political appointment and added to the classified service to be obtained and retained for merit only.
Besides the indent business there is, of course, purely merchant business by Manchester exporters, who buy on their own initiative at what they consider to be opportune times or on recommendations from their houses or correspondents abroad.
Du Verdus was one of Hobbes's profoundest admirers and most frequent correspondents in later years; there are many of his letters among Hobbes's papers at Hardwick.
It remains to deal with the censorship of messages from authorized British correspondents on the several fronts.
As a result of further urgent representations by the Association, represented by Lord Burnham, Lord Northcliffe and Sir George Riddell, the following correspondents were authorized in May 1915 - Mr. John Buchan (Times and Daily News), Mr. Percival Landon (Daily Telegraph and Daily Chronicle), Mr. (afterwards Sir) Percival Phillips (Morning Post and Daily Express), Mr. Valentine Williams (Daily Mail and Standard), Mr. Douglas Williams (Reuters).
At the beginning, the regulations for the guidance of correspondents were as follows, but for the most part they were allowed to write as they wished.
(6) The articles of war correspondents must be confined to topographical descriptions and generalities.
The severe restrictions on the liberty of the correspondents led to continual complaints by the Association.
By the exercise of tact, discretion and inviolable good faith, the correspondents gradually won the confidence of the army, so that towards the end of the war officers of all ranks were keen to have them with their troops and to give them every facility permitted by official regulations.
A great victory was thus achieved and a great service rendered by the correspondents to the country and the Press.
The difficulties were accentuated by the lack of association between the correspondents and the real head of the censorship at G.H.Q.
Nothing could be said by the correspondents that differed from the communiques, which usually came out after the despatches had been written.
During the whole of the war the chief cause of complaint was the refusal of the authorities to permit the correspondents to identify the units taking part in particular operations, or, in other words, to name the troops engaged.
These feelings were gradually removed after constant protests, but not until the war had been in progress for nearly three years was a system evolved which by degrees gave the correspondents a reasonable amount of freedom.
There is a great variety in the style not only of Cicero's correspondents, but also of Cicero himself.
Several of his correspondents are indifferent stylists.
Benjamin joined the northern circuit, and a large proportion of his early practice came from solicitors at Liverpool who had correspondents in New Orleans.
Besides this, the response his ideas gave to popular needs and feelings was evinced by the numerous correspondents who sought his advice in their difficulties.
There is a society at Mauritius, and correspondents in various parts of South and West Africa, India, Japan, the West Indies and South America.
All of these had been intimate acquaintances and correspondents of the poet.
It was in vain that his correspondents pointed out the discrepancy between his professed zeal for Italian liberties, his recent enthusiasm for the Roman republic, and this alliance with tyrants who were destroying the freedom of the Lombard cities.
He writes to correspondents making enquiries about the tides in the Euxine and Caspian Seas.
The terrible condition of the army, vividly described in the letters which the war correspondents of the newspapers sent home, aroused strong feelings of indignation in Great Britain.
Among his correspondents were Vossius, Grotius and Huet.
(7) Detailed information obtained by war correspondents can be used only when permission is given, and the time of publication will vary according to circumstances.