(After Lankester, 17.) dc, Directive corpuscle (outcast cell).
He explained chemical combination on the hypotheses that matter consisted of minute corpuscles, that by the coalescence of corpuscles of different substances distinctly new corpuscles of a compound were formed, and that each corpuscle had a certain affinity for other corpuscles.
In gases the electrons sometimes travel alone, but in liquids they are always attached to matter, and their motion involves the movement of chemical atoms or groups of atoms. An atom with an extra corpuscle is a univalent negative ion, an atom with one corpuscle detached is a univalent positive ion.
Whence oM_ HT e, M - 4 71m 1 The charge associated with a corpuscle is the same as that carried by a hydrogen atom.
The application of this term to Thomson's corpuscle implies, rightly or wrongly, that notwithstanding its apparent mass, the corpuscle is in fact nothing more than an atom of electricity.
The question whether a corpuscle actually has a material gravitating nucleus is undecided, but there are strong reasons for believing that its mass is entirely due to the electric charge.
The perfecting of the microscope led to a full comprehension of the great doctrine of cell-structure and the establishment of the facts - (r) that all organisms are either, single corpuscles (so-called cells) of living material (microscopic animalcules, &c.) or are built up of an immense number of such units; (2) that all organisms begin their individual existence as a single unit or corpuscle of living substance, which multiplies by binary fission, the products growing in size and multiplying similarly by binary fission; and (3) that the life of a multicellular organism is the sum of the activities of the corpuscular units of which it consists, and that the processes of life must be studied in and their explanation obtained from an understanding of the chemical and physical changes which go on in each.
Individual corpuscle or unit of living material or protoplasm.
Cuticle; b, basal membrane; c, outer circular muscles; d, epidermal cells depressed below the surface usually occupied by them in other animals; e, gland cell; f, " flamecell " (the reference line stops a little short); g, outer longitudinal muscles; h, a calcareous corpuscle; i, dorso-ventral muscles; j, a " parenchyma " cell (probably nervous); k, nerveplexus; 1, excretory vessel giving off capillaries ending in flamecells; m, a sense-cell; n, a muscle-cell; o, ending of the same; p, ending of sense-cell; q, opening of gland-cell; r, superficial cuticle.
Schaudinn has stated, however, that Trypanomorpha becomes, in certain phases, attached to a red blood-corpuscle (ectoglobular), and, in others, penetrates inside one and eventually destroys it (endoglobular); while his other avian parasite, Trypanosoma ziemanni, apparently draws up into itself the white corpuscle (leucocyte) to which it becomes attached.
A, Typical pear-shaped or oval forms; b, various stages in longitudinal division; c, nuclear division preparatory to multiple fission; d, endoglobular forms, in red blood-corpuscles (p = pigment grains); e, bacillary form of the parasite in a corpuscle; M, large macrophageal cell with many parasites (after Donovan).
The egg-cell of Mollusca is either free from food-material - a simple protoplasmic corpuscle or charged with food-material to a greater or less extent.
22 dc, Directive corpuscle (outcast cell).
The mass of the electron or corpuscle is 7 0 X1028 gramme and its diameter is 3 X I 013 centimetre.
Trans., 1894, 185; 1895, 186; 1897, 190), and subsequently in his book Aether and Matter (1900), a remarkable hypothesis of the structure of the electron or corpuscle, which he regards as simply a strain centre in the aether or electromagnetic medium, a chemical atom being a collection of positive and negative electrons or strain centres in stable orbital motion round their common centre of mass (see Aether).
The idea of such forces, however, had been distinctly formed by Newton, who gave the first example of the calculation of the effect of such forces in his theorem on the alteration of the path of a light-corpuscle when it enters or leaves a dense body.
The development of all antagonistic substances which confer the special character on antimicrobic sera, as well as antitoxins, may be expressed as the formation of bodies with specific combining affinity for the organic substance introduced into the system - toxin, bacterium, red corpuscle, &c., as the case may be.