From these two arbitrary hypotheses about corporeal motion, that it requires indivisibly simple elements, and that it offers only passive resistance, he concluded that behind bodies there must be units, or monads, which would be at once substantial, simple, indivisible and active.
Anaximander postulated a corporeal substance intermediate between air and fire on the one hand, and between earth and water on the other hand.
That the transmigration theory, which makes the spirit of the departed hover about for a time in quest of a new corporeal abode, would naturally lend itself to superstitious notions of this kind can scarcely be doubted.
But experience is of two sorts, external and internal; the first is that usually called experiment, but it can give no complete knowledge even of corporeal things, much less of spiritual.
All kinds of interests and property, whether corporeal, such as lands or buildings, or incorporeal, such as rights of common or of way, may be let.
The common law doctrine of a six months' notice being required to terminate a tenancy from year to year of a corporeal hereditament, does not apply to an incorporeal hereditament such as a right to shoot.
If corporeal, he must be simple or compound; if a simple and elementary substance, he is incapable of life and thought; if compound, he contains in himself the elements of dissolution.
For there is a corporeal chewing, by which food is taken into the mouth by man, bruised with the teeth and swallowed down into the belly..
There is also a spiritual chewing of the body of Christ, not such that by it we understand the very food to be changed into spirit, but such that, the body and blood of the Lord abiding in their essence and peculiarity, they are spiritually communicated to us, not in any corporeal way, but in a spiritual, through the Holy Spirit which applies and bestows on us those things which were prepared through the flesh and blood of the Lord betrayed for our sake to death, to wit, remission of sins, liberation and life eternal, so that Christ lives in us and we in him...
Luther distinguished between the Spiritual Church, which he identified with the Communion of Saints, and the Corporeal Church, the outward marks of which are Baptism, Sacrament and Gospel.
Next comes the mathematical world of space, then the corporeal world, and finally the empirical world with its ]imitations of space and time.
(a) The first of these characters is described by anticipation in Plato's Sophist (246 C seq.), where, arguing with those " who drag everything down to the corporeal " (vcnµa), the Eleatic stranger would fain prove to them the existence of something incorporeal, as follows.
That qualities of bodies (and therefore of the corporeal soul) exist they do not deny; but they assert most uncompromisingly that they are one and all (wisdom, justice, &c.) corporeal.
We hear, too, of corporeal days and years, corporeal virtues, and actions (like walking) which are bodies ((Teo yam) Obviously, again, the Stoic quality corresponds to Aristotle's essential form; in both systems the active principle, " the cause of all that matter becomes," is that which accounts for the existence of a given concrete thing (Xoyos Ti s ov61as).
But we can answer authoritatively that to Cleanthes and Chrysippus, if not to Zeno, there was no real difference between matter and its cause, which is always a corporeal current, and therefore matter, although the finest and subtlest matter.
The Stoics explained it as a transmission of the perceived quality of the object, by means of the sense organ, into the percipient's mind, the quality transmitted appearing as a disturbance_or impression upon the corporeal surface of that " thinking thing," the soul.
Incidentally we meet there with the doctrines of Pneuma and of tension, of the corporeal nature of the virtues and the affections, and much more to the same effect.
So Tertullian writes: "The water which carried the Spirit of God (probably regarded as a shadow or reflection-soul) borrowed holiness from that which was carried upon it; for every underlying matter must needs absorb and take up the quality of that matter which overhangs it; especially does a corporeal so absorb a spiritual, as this can easily penetrate and settle into it owing to the subtlety of its substance."
- Democritus devoted considerable attention to the structure of the human body, the noblest portion of which he considered to be the soul, which everywhere pervades it, a psychic atom being intercalated between two corporeal atoms. Although, in accordance with his principles, Democritus was bound to regard the soul as material (composed of round, smooth, specially mobile atoms, identified with the fire-atoms floating in the air), he admitted a distinction between it and the body, and is even said to have looked upon it as something divine.
- Sensations are the changes produced in the soul by external impressions, and are the result of contact, since every action of one body (and all representations are corporeal phenomena) upon another is of the nature of a shock.
It should be noticed that Hartley's sensationalism is far from leading him to exalt the corporeal pleasures.
Trust estates were not subject to escheat until the Intestates' Estates Act 1884, but now by that act the law of escheat applies in the same manner as if the estate or interest were a legal estate in corporeal hereditaments.
384), to which he says brutes, who partake as truly as men in the faculty called phantasia, never attain; the notion of God, whom he says we may imagine to be corporeal, but understand to be incorporeal; and lastly, the reflex action by which the mind makes its own phenomena and operations the objects of attention.
In the Christian Church (and again in early Mahommedanism) simple minds believed in the corporeal nature of God.
It has been argued that the elaborate structural adaptations of the nervous system which are the corporeal correlatives of Theory complicated instincts must have been slowly built up by the transmission to offspring of acquired ex perience, that is to say, of acquired brain structure.
When Gnosticism recognizes in this corporeal and material world the true seat of evil, consistently treating the bodily existence of mankind as essentially evil and the separation of the spiritual from the corporeal being as the object of salvation, this is an outcome of the contrast in Greek dualism between spirit and matter, soul and body.
All corporeal hereditaments were by that act declared to be in grant as well as livery, i.e.
According to this alternative, these organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, between monads and phenomena; and Leibnitz is a metaphysical realist.
But all four agreed in tracing the variety of things to a single material cause, corporeal, endowed with qualities, and capable of self-transformation.
A peculiarity of his thought was the realistic nature of his spiritualism: his abstractions are all real existences; his spiritual entities are real and corporeal; his truth is actual being.
(b) But the doctrine that all existence is confined within the limits of the sensible universe - that there is no being save corporeal being or body - does not suffice to characterize the Stoic system; it is no less a doctrine of the Epicureans.
In short, the single corporeal element of the Ionian physicists was, to borrow a phrase from Aristotle, a permanent aorta having 7r1cOrj which change; but they either neglected the iraOn or confounded them with the oboia.
For all that is or happens there is an immediate cause or antecedent; and as " cause " means " cause of motion," and only body can act upon body, it follows that this antecedent cause is itself as truly corporeal as the matter upon which it acts.
But long before this the peculiar character of air had been recognized as something intermediate to the corporeal and the incorporeal: when Diogenes of Apollonia revived the old Ionian hylozoism in opposition to the dualism of Anaxagoras, he made this, the typical example of matter in the gaseous state, his one element.
On the one hand, soul is corporeal, else it would have no real existence, would be incapable of extension in three dimensions (and therefore of equable diffusion all over the body), incapable of holding the body together, as the Stoics contended that it does, herein presenting a sharp contrast to the Epicurean tenet that it is the body which confines and shelters the light vagrant atoms of soul.
On the other hand, this corporeal thing is veritably and identically reason, mind, and ruling principle (X6-yos, vas, iiyE,uovtKOv); in virtue of its divine origin Cleanthes can say to Zeus, " We too are thy offspring," and a Seneca can calmly insist that, if man and God are not on perfect equality, the superiority rests rather on our side.
The presump tion of some merely external connexion, as between any other two corporeal things, is alone admissible and some form of the These derivative powers include the five senses, speech and the reproductive faculty, and they bear to the soul the relation of qualities to a substance.
Its distinctive doctrines are: (1) that all created beings, spiritual or corporeal, are composed of matter and form, the various species of matter being but varieties of the universal matter, and similarly all forms being contained in one universal form; (2) that between the primal One and the intellect (the y olk of Plotinus) there is interposed the divine Will, which is itself divine and above the distinction of form and matter, but is the cause of their union in the being next to itself, the intellect, in which Avicebron holds that the distinction does exist.
According to the other alternative, however, he suggested that at least organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, which are not phenomena; but something realizing or rather substantializing phenomena, and not mere aggregates of monads, but something substantial beyond their monads, because an organic body, though composed of monads, has a real unity (unio realis).
The Christians of the early centuries, looking for corporeal resurrection, avoided the incisions, extraction of organs, &c., practised by their pagan forefathers, and buried the body entire after pickling it in salt.
The controversy between nominalists and realists arose from a passage in Boethius' translation of Porphyry's Introduction to the Categories of Aristotle, which propounded the problem of genera and species, (1) as to whether they subsist in themselves or only in the mind; (2) whether, if subsistent, they are corporeal or incorporeal; and (3) whether separated from sensible things or placed in them.