In 1835 the corporation was remodelled under the Municipal Corporations Act.
Corporations are run by "officers," comprised of multiple "divisions," and set revenue "targets."
I find it is funded by corporations, do-gooders, trust funds, individuals, and off shore ghost entities... unfortunately, too many names to pursue each and every one.
In 1832 he was knighted, and after serving as one of the municipal corporations commissioners, became deputykeeper of the public records in 1838, holding this office until his death at Hampstead on the 6th of July 1861.
Later we find the worship of Isis and of Cybele,the latter being especially flourishing, with large corporations of dendrophori (priests who carried branches of trees in procession) and cannofori (basketcarriers); the worship of Mithras, too, had a large number of followers.
P. Waltzing, Les Corporations professionelles, Brussels and Liege).
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
The Association of Municipal Corporations and the London County Council, on the other hand, considered the terms of purchase to be too favourable to the company.
The present Italian mutual benefit societies resemble the ancient beneficent corporations, of which in some respects they may be considered a continuation.
New parishes were created, old parishes were improved, the property of the suppressed religious corporations was assigned to charitable and educational institutions and to hospitals, while property having no special application was used to form a charitable and religious fund.
At that time four limited companies were authorized to issue bank notes, namely, the National Bank, the National Bank of Tuscany, the Roman Bank and the Tuscan Credit Bank; and two banking corporations, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily.
Trade flourished; the corporations of bargemen and the like on the Rhone made money; the many towns grew rich and could afford splendid public buildings.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
Whether the intelligence and efficiency of the officials charged by the state with the handling of its railway system will be sufficient to make them act in the interest of the public as fully as do the managers of private corporations, is a question whose answer can only be determined by actual experience in each case.
These special acts gradually gave way to general statutes under which railway corporations could be created without application to the legislature.
In the period before 1850 there was but little realization of the public nature of the railway industry and of the possibilities of injury to the public if railway corporations were left uncontrolled.
By his charter in 1550 made its governors one of the first purely lay educational corporations founded in England.
The chief sources of revenue are taxes on realty, personalty and corporations, a poll-tax, and licences.
During the wild era of speculation which followed (especially in 1832 - upon the opening of the Chickasaw Cession to settlement) a large number of banks and railroad corporations with banking privileges were chartered.
The efforts (1712-1721) to foster colonization and commerce through trading corporations established by Antoine Crozat and John Law failed, and the colony soon came again under the direct control of the king.
In addition to the ordinary general property tax, licences and polls, there are a tax on corporations and an income tax.
The two principal railway corporations, the Southern and the Seaboard Air Line, contended that the act was clearly contrary to the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids the imposition of excessive fines.
Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation.
The constitution of 1851, however, provided for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a "general municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States.
The chief sources of the general revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and cigarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301, and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705.
Powers of granting building and other leases have been conferred by modern legislation on municipal corporations and other local authorites.
Another civic improvement was the plan that a permanent committee of citizens should be engaged in the solving of the housing problem, and that the chamber of commerce, cooperating with the state, should employ a director in charge of the Americanization programme in which the public schools and corporations cooperate.
English law has largely moulded, for example, criminal and commercial law and the law of evidence; the development of the law of corporations, damages, prohibitions and such extraordinary remedies as the mandamus has been very similar to that in other states; while in the fusion of law and equity, and the law of successions, family relations, &c., the civil law of Spain and France has been unaffected.
The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.
There are many private schools in all the large cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis, Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, Sao Paulo and Parana, the Lyceu de Artes e Officios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of Sao Paulo.
The chief towns - Durban; Maritzburg, Ladysmith, Newcastle and Dundee - are governed by municipal corporations and minor towns by local boards.
In addition to the usual state boards of education (1837), agriculture (1852), railroad commissioners (1869), health (1869), statistics of labour, fisheries and game, charity (1879), the dairy bureau (1891), of insanity (1898), prison, highways, insurance and banking commissions, there are also commissions on ballot-law, voting machines, civil service (1884), uniformity of legislation, gas and electric lighting corporations, conciliation and arbitration in labour disputes (1886), &c. There are efficient state boards of registration in pharmacy, dentistry and medicine.
In the case of all quasi-public corporations rigid laws exist prohibiting the issue of stock or bonds unless the par value is first paid in; prohibiting the declaration of any stock or scrip dividend, and requiring that new stock shall be offered to stockholders at not less than its market value, to be determined by the proper state officials, any shares not so subscribed for to be sold by public auction.
Finally, many private charitable corporations (about 500 in 1905) report to the state board of charity, and town and city almshouses (205 in 1904) are subject to visitation.
From 1874 - methods are used for the taxation of banks, insurance companies, railways, tramways, trust companies and corporations, some of them noteworthy.
In the case of corporations realty and machinery are taxed generally by the local authorities, and stock values by the commonwealth.
Friedman, The Taxation of Corporations in Massachusetts (New York, 1907); and C. J.
Nevertheless there has always been a strong sentiment in the state urging, that corporations be held more in check, and its industries are not such as to receive a large benefit directly from tariff legislation.
All taxable property of the state, that of corporations for the most part excepted, is assessed by the township assessor.
The municipal corporations are civil divisions quite independent of the county and township system.
Cities of the first class are those having a population of 15,000 or over; cities of the second class are those having a population of 2000 but less than 15,000; all other municipal corporations, except cities with special charters, are known as incorporated towns.
Corporations cannot be created by a special act of the legislature, and no corporation may issue stock except for an equivalent value of money, labour or property.