Propagation is by the formation of new corms from the parent corm, and by seeds.
The corm of the meadow-saffron attains its full size in June or early in July.
A smaller corm is then formed from the old one, close to its root; and this in September and October produces the crocus-like flowers.
The young corm, at first about the diameter of the flower-stalk, grows continuously, till in the following July it attains the size of a small apricot.
The parent corm remains attached to the new one, and keeps its form and size till April in the third year of its existence, after which it decays.
In some cases a single corm produces several new plants during its second spring by giving rise to immature corms.
For medical purposes the corm should be collected in the early summer and, after the outer coat has been removed, should be sliced and dried at a temperature of 130° to 150° F.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains (i) an extract of the fresh corm, having doses of 4 to i grain, and (2) the Vinum Colchici, made by treating the dried corm with sherry and given in doses of 10 to 30 minims. This latter is the preparation still most generally used, though the presence of veratrine both in the corm and the seeds renders the use of colchicine itself theoretically preferable.
The plants have a rhizome or corm, and the fruit is a capsule.
Colchicum illustrates the corm-development which is rare in Liliaceae though common in the allied order Iridaceae; a corm is formed by swelling at the base of the axis (figs.
A, Old corm shrivelling; b, young corm produced laterally from the old one.
K', Younger corm produced from k.
Young corm produced from k', in autumn, which in succeeding autumn will produce flowers.
At the beginning of the new season of growth, new flowerand leaf-bearing shoots are developed from the corm at the expense of the food-stuff stored within it.
According to Hakluyt, it was brought into England from Tripoli by a pilgrim, who hid a stolen corm in the hollow of his staff.
The members of this order are generally perennial herbs growing from a corm as in Crocus and Gladiolus, or a rhizome as in Iris; more rarely, as in the Spanish iris, from a bulb.
In a Phyllopod such as Apus the limbs of the trunk consist of a flattened, unsegmented or obscurely segmented axis or corm having a series of lobes or processes known as endites and exites on its inner and outer margins respectively.
The two distal endites are regarded as corresponding to the endopodite and exopodite of the higher Crustacea, the axis or corm of the Phyllopod limb representing the protopodite.
Lankester (5) has shown (and his views have been accepted by Professors Korschelt and Heider in their treatise on Embryology) that the limb of the lowest Crustacea, such as Apus, consists of a corm or axis which may be jointed, and gives rise to outgrowths, either leaf-like or filiform, on its inner and outer margins (endites and exites).
The reduction of the outgrowth-bearing " corm " of the parapodium of either a Chaetopod or an Arthropod to a simple cylindrical stump, devoid of outgrowths, is brought about when mechanical conditions favour such a shape.
It is not true that all the biting processes of the Arthropod limb are thus produced - for instance, the jaws of Peripatus are formed by the axis or corm itself, whilst the poisonjaws of Chilopods, as also their maxillae, appear to be formed rather by the apex or terminal region of the ramus of the limb; but the opposing jaws (= hemignaths) of Crustacea, Arachnida and Hexapoda are gnathobases, and not the axis or corm.
The principal forms assumed by the Arthropod parapodium and its rami may be thus enumerated: (1) Axial corm well developed, unsegmented or with two to four segments; lateral endites and exites (rami) numerous and of various lengths (certain 8 limbs of lower After Lankester, Q.
(4) Three of the rami of the primitive limb (endites 5 and 6, and exite I) specially developed as endopodite, exopodite, and epipodite - the first two often as firm and strongly chitinized, segmented, leg-like structures; the original axis or corm reduced to a basal piece, with or without a distinct gnathobase (endite i)- typical tri-ramose limb of higher Crustacea.
(5) One ramus (the endopodite) alone developed - the original axis or corm serving as its basal joint with or without gnathobase.
It varies as to the presence or absence of the jawprocess and as to the stoutness of the segments of the ramus, their number (frequently six, plus the basal corm), and the modification of the free end.
(6) Two rami developed (usually, but perhaps not always, the equivalents of the endopodite and exopodite) supported on the somewhat elongated corm (basal segment).
(7) The endopoditic ramus is greatly enlarged and flattened, without or with only one jointing, the corm (basal segment) is evanescent; often the plate-like endopodites of a pair of such appendages unite in the middle line with one another or by the intermediary of a sternal up-growth and form a single broad plate.
(8) The gnathobase becomes greatly enlarged and not separated by a joint from the corm; it acts as a hemignath or half jaw working against its fellow of the opposite side.
(9) The corm becomes the seat of a development of a special visual organ, the Arthropod eye (as opposed to the Chaetopod eye).
(2) Corm, with short unsegmented rami, forming a flattened foliaceous appendage, adapted to swimming and respiration (trunk-limbs of Phyllopods).
It may be pointed out that the most radical difference presented in this list is that between appendages consisting of the corm alone without rami (Onychophora) and those with more or less developed rami (the rest of the Arthropoda).
(e) The rest of the somites carry equi-formal simple appendages, consisting of a corm or axis tipped with two chitinous claws and devoid of rami.
In all cases the appendages primarily develop rami or branches which form the limbs, the primitive axis or corm being reduced and of insignificant size.
They contain a volatile oil which does not occur in the corm, and their proportion of colchicine is higher, for which reason the Tinctura Colchici Seminum- dose 5 to 15 minims - is preferable to the wine prepared from the corm.