A conflict between Corcyra and Corinth, the second and third naval powers of Greece, led to the simultaneous appearance in Athens of an embassy from either combatant (433) Pericles had, as it seems, resumed of late a plan of Western expansion by forming alliances with Rhegium and Leontini, and the favourable position of Corcyra on the traderoute to Sicily and Italy, as well as its powerful fleet, no doubt helped to induce him to secure an alliance with that island, and so to commit an unfriendly act towards a leading representative of the Peloponnesian League.
BUTRINTO, a seaport and fortified town of southern Albania, Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina; directly opposite the island of Corfu (Corcyra), and on a small stream which issues from Lake Vatzindro or Vivari, into the Bay of Butrinto, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea.
In the 1st century B.C. Buthrotum became a Roman colony, and derived some importance from its position near Corcyra, and on the main highway between Dyrrachium and Ambracia.
The Corinthian Li LJi and (also at Corcyra) and the of Byzantine coins are other adaptations of the same symbol.
Again, others (Apollonius Rhodius) laid down the course as up the Danube (Ister), from it into the Adriatic by a supposed mouth of that river, and on to Corcyra, where a storm overtook them.
Then they passed safely through Scylla and Charybdis, past the Sirens, through the Planctae, over the island of the Sun, Trinacria and on to Corcyra again, the land of the Phaeacians, where Jason and Medea held their nuptials.
4, p. 269) Chersicrates and Archias of Corinth, both Heraclidae, left their native city together with a band of colonists, the former stopping with half the force at Corcyra, where he expelled the Liburnians and occupied the island, while Archias proceeded to Syracuse.'
Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela (498-491), threatened the independence of Syracuse as well as of other cities, and it was saved only by the joint intervention of Corinth and Corcyra and by the cession of the vacant territory of Camarina.
From the defeat at Pharsalus, to which he had contributed by affecting to despise his late comrades, he fled to Corcyra, and thence to Africa.
From this it is easy to pass to the most widely spread Greek form, the ordinary In Corinth, however, and its colony Corcyra, in Ozolian Locris and Elis, a form < inclined at a different angle is found.
The early policy of Ambracia was determined by its loyalty to Corinth (for which it probably served as an entrepot in the Epirus trade), its consequent aversion to Corcyra, and its frontier disputes with the Amphilochians and Acarnanians.
About the same time the successes of Timotheus in the west resulted in the addition to the league of Corcyra and the cities of Cephallenia, and his moderation induced the Acarnanians and Alcetas, the Molossian king, to follow their example.
Trouble, however, soon arose over Zacynthus, and the Spartans not only sent help to the Zacynthian oligarchs but even besieged Corcyra (373) Timotheus was sent to relieve the island, but shortness of money compelled him to search for new allies, and he spent the summer of 373 in persuading Jason of Pherae (if he had not already joined), and certain towns in Thrace, the Chersonese, the Propontis and the Aegean to enrol themselves.
This delay in sending help to Corcyra was rightly or wrongly condemned by the Athenians, who dismissed Timotheus in favour of Iphicrates.
Chares was ordered to make reprisals, but instead sailed to Corcyra, where he made the mistake of siding with the oligarchs.
The league was further weakened by the secession of Corcyra, and by 355 was reduced to Athens, Euboea and a few islands.
Scheria was identified in very early times with Corcyra, where Alcinous was reverenced as a hero.
The maritime expansion of Corinth at this time is proved by the foundation of colonies at Syracuse and Corcyra, and the equipment of a fleet of triremes (the newly invented Greek men-of-war) to quell a revolt of the latter city.
Maintained a close commercial alliance with the mother-city, the disaffection of Corcyra hampered the Italian trade.
At Corinth the unit was evidently the Assyrian and not the Attic, being 129.6 at the earliest (17) (though modified to double Attic, or 133, later) and being divided by 3, and not into 2 drachms. And this agrees with the mina being repeatedly found at Corcyra, and with the same standard passing to the Italian coinage (17) similar in weight, and in division into 1/3 -- the heaviest coinages (17) down to 400 B.C. (Terina, Velia, Sybaris, Posidonia, Metapontum, Tarentum, &c.) being none over 126, while later on many were adjusted to the Attic, and rose to 134.
Corcyra), an island of Greece, in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of Albania or Epirus, from which it is separated by a strait varying in breadth from less than 2 to about 15 m.
According to the local tradition Corcyra was the Homeric island of Scheria, and its earliest inhabitants the Phaeacians.
The splendid commercial position of Corcyra on the highway between Greece and the West favoured its rapid growth, and, influenced p erhaps by the presence of non-Corinthian settlers, its people, quite contrary to the usual practice of Corinthian colonies, maintained an independent and even hostile attitude towards the mother city.
These hostilities ended in the conquest of Corcyra by the Corinthian tyrant Periander (c. 600), who induced his new subjects to join in the colonization of Apollonia and Anactorium.
This new alliance was one of the chief immediate causes of the Peloponnesian War, in which Corcyra was of considerable use to the Athenians as a naval station, but did not render much assistance with its fleet.
During the Sicilian campaigns of Athens Corcyra served as a base for supplies; after a third abortive rising of the oligarchs in 410 it practically withdrew from the war.
In the Hellenistic period Corcyra was exposed to attack from several sides; after a vain siege by Cassander it was occupied in turn by Agathocles and Pyrrhus.
Eclipsed by the foundation of Nicopolis, Corcyra for a long time passed out of notice.
Corcyra remained in Venetian hands till 1 797, though several times assailed by Turkish armaments and subjected to two notable sieges in 1536 and 1716-1718, in which the great natural strength of the city again asserted itself.
The site of the ancient city of Corcyra(Kpicupa) is well ascertained, about IZ m.
The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Cnidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded the city of Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.
The next year Corinth began her system of settlement in the west: Corcyra, the path to Sicily, and Syracuse on the Sicilian coast were planted as parts of one enterprise.
It reminds us of the general conditions of Greek seamanship when we find that Corcyra was the meetingplace for the allied fleet, and that Syracuse was reached only by a coasting voyage along the shores of Greek Italy.
As son-in-law of Agathocles, he claimed to be specially king of Sicily, and he held the Sicilian conquest of Corcyra as the dowry of Lanassa.
This rivalry was roused to fever heat by the Athenian intervention in 434-33 on behalf of Corcyra, Corinth's rebellious colony (see Corfu) and from that time the Corinthians felt that the Thirty Years' Truce was at an end.
Corinth however had not only strong, but also immediate and urgent reasons (Potidaea and Corcyra) for desiring war.
Meanwhile there occurred civil war in Corcyra, in which ultimately, with the aid of the Athenian admiral Eurymedon,.
The Athenians had despatched 40 triremes under Eurymedon and Procles to Sicily with orders to call first at Corcyra to prevent an expected Spartan attack.
Demosthenes was left behind in this fort, and the Spartans promptly withdrew from their annual raid upon Attica and their projected attack on Corcyra to dislodge him.
At Goritsa, the ancient Corcyra, in 1911, the Greek Archaeological Society discovered an early archaic temple of Artemis, the excavation of which was continued until 1914 by Doerpfeld at the expense of the former Emperor of Germany.
Corfu (Corcyra) with Paxo; Cephalonia; Santa Maura (Levkas) with Thiaki (Ithaca) and Zante (Zacynthos) each form separate nomarchies or departments; Cerigo (Cythera) forms part of the nomarchy of Laconia.
The command by Cato the Younger at Corcyra, and was threatened with death by the young Cn.
Chap. ii.) was borrowed from the Locrian alphabet; (2) the Sabellic alphabet, derived from that of Corinth and Corcyra, and found in a few inscriptions of eastern-central Italy; (3) the alphabet of the Veneti of north-east Italy derived from the Elean; (4) the alphabet of Sondrio (between Lakes Como and Garda), which Pauli, on the insufficient ground that it possesses no symbols corresponding to 4 and x, derives from a source at the same stage of development as the oldest alphabets of Thera, Melos and Crete.
With this end in view he established colonies at Potidaea and Apollonia in Macedonia, at Anactorium and Leucas in north-western Greece, and he is said to have projected a canal through the Isthmus, In Greece proper he conquered Epidaurus, and with the help of his fleet of triremes brought the important trading centre of Corcyra under his control, while his interest in the Olympian festival is perhaps attested by a dedication which may be ascribed to him - the famous "chest of Cypselus."
His sons all died or were estranged from him, and the murder of his last remaining child Lycophron, the governor of Corcyra, is said to have broken his spirit and hastened on his death.