The Maronites, and the uniate Jacobites, Chaldaeans and Copts have adopted the Roman mitre.
In all of these ancient churches episcopacy is regarded as of divine origin; and in those of them which reject the papal supremacy the bishops are still regarded as the guardians of the tradition of apostolic orthodoxy and the stewards of the gifts of the Holy Ghost to men (see ORTHODOX EASTERN CHURCH; ARMENIAN CHURCH; COPTS: Coptic Church, &c.).
The Alexandrian era continued to be followed by the Copts in the 15th century, and is said to be still used in Abyssinia.
The Egyptian months, followed by the modern Copts, agree with the above in every respect excepting the names.
Between the Armenians and the Copts they have been deprived of these, and even of the keys of their convent.
Only the Copts and Armenians wear it scarf-wise.
At the time of the separation of the churches the Greeks here had remained faithful to Orthodoxy, the Copts to Monophysitism.
Though at the time of the Arab conquest the Copts were reckoned at six millions, in 1820 the Coptic Christians numbered only about one hundred thousand, and it is improbable that their number can have been much greater at the close of the middle ages.
Generally the Abyssinians agree with the Copts in ritual and practice.
From the close of the 5th century the Armenians have remained monophysite, like the Copts and Abyssinians, and have only broken the record with occasional short interludes of orthodoxy, as when in 633 the emperor Heraclius forced reunion on them, under a catholicus named Esdras, at a council held in Erzerum.
In Egypt the United Presbyterians of America have met with considerable success among the Copts, and their fine educational work has proved a valuable asset both to themselves and the country.
In this enterprise there has been great advance in Egypt among the Copts, and in 1899 the Pope signalized " the resurrection of the Church of Alexandria " by appointing a Patriarch for Egypt, Libya and Nubia.
The Arab city and the quarters of the Copts and Jews lie E.
The patriarch of the Copts was formerly consecrated in this church.
At the beginning of the 19th century the population was estimated at about 200,000, made up of 120,000 Moslems, 60,000 Copts, 4000 Jews and 16,000 Greeks, Armenians and " Franks."
Swine are very rarely kept, and then almost wholly for the European inhabitants, the Copts generally abstaining from eating their meat.
(In the same manner, in matters of personal law, Copts and other non-Moslem Egyptians are, in general, subject to the jurisdiction of their own religious chiefs.)
Besides the government primary and secondary schools, there are many other schools in the large towns owned by the Moslems, Copts, Hebrews, and by various missionary societies, and in which the education is on the same lines.
The Copts have about 1000 primary schools, in which the teaching of Coptic is compulsory, a few industrial schools, and one college for higher instruction.
The Coptic inhabitants are described in the article COPTS, and the rural population under FELLAH.
The former, called by the Arabs Mukaukis (Muqauqis) from his Coptic name Pkauchios, had for ten years before the arrival of Amr maintained a fierce persecution of the Jacobite sect, to which the bulk of the Copts belonged.
The notion that the Arab invaders were welcomed and assisted by the Copts, driven to desperation by the persecution of Cyrus, appears to be refuted by the fact that the invaders treated both Copts and Romans with the same ruthlessness; but the dissensions which prevailed in the Christian communities, leading to riots and even civil war in Alexandria and elsewhere, probably weakened resistance to the common enemy.
And it would appear that at the time of the attempt by Manuel the Arabs were actually assisted by the Copts, who at the first had found the Moslem lighter than the Roman yoke.
Conversions of Copts to Islam were at first rare, and the old system of taxation was maintained for the greater part of the first Islamic century.
Tlabbab (720734) the first government survey by Moslems was made, followed by a census; but before this time the higher administrative posts had been largely taken out of the hands of Copts and filled with Arabs.
The resentment of the Copts finally expressed itself in a revolt, which broke out in the year 725, and was suppressed with difficulty.
Other revolts of the Copts are recorded for the year 739 and 750, the last year of Omayyad domination.
The Abbasid period was marked at its commencement by the erection of a new capital to the north of Fostat, bearing the name Askar or camp. Apparently at this time the practice of farming the taxes began, which naturally led to even greater extortion than before; and a fresh rising of the Copts is recorded for the fourth year of Abbasid rule.
The rebellion broke out repeatedly in the following years, and in 831 the Copts joined with the Arabs against the government; the state of affairs became so serious that the caliph Mamun himself visited Egypt, arriving at Fostat in February 832; his general Afshin fought a decisive battle with the rebels at Bgshard in the IJauf region, at which the Copts were compelled to surrender; the males were massacred and the women and children sold as slaves.
(Baron de) Menou (r75oI81o), a man who had professed Islam, and who endeavoured to conciliate the Moslem population by various measures, such as excluding all Christians (with the exception of one Frenchman) from the divan, replacing the Copts who were in government service by Moslems, and subjecting French residents to taxes.
Pop. (1907) 34,999, including 2617 Copts and 1355 Greeks.
The historian Ferishta says he had read that the Afghans were descended from Copts of the race of Pharaoh.
The number of Uniat Copts is nominal.
The official class is composed chiefly of British and Egyptians; the traders are mostly Greeks, Syrians and Copts, while nearly all the tribes of the Sudan are represented in the negro and Arab inhabitants.
The advocates of the one nature theory were called Monophysites (q.v.), and they gave rise to numerous sects, and to at least three separate national churches - the Jacobites of Syria, the Copts of Egypt and the Abyssinian Church, which are treated under separate headings.