C.) Copiapo, a city of northern Chile, capital of the province of Atacama, about 35 m.
From the coast on the Copiapo river, in lat.
The Caldera & Copiapo railway (built 1848-1851 and one of the first in South America) extends beyond Copiapo to the Chanarcillo mines (50 m.) and other mining districts.
Copiapo stands 1300 ft.
Of the mouth of the Copiapo river.
Copiapo is perhaps the best built and most attractive of the desert region cities.
Copiapo was founded in 1742 by Jose de Manso (afterwards Conde de Superunda, viceroy of Peru) and took its name from the Copayapu Indians who occupied that region.
The capital, Copiapo (est.
The principal rivers of this region are Sama (which forms the provisional boundary line with Peru), Tacna, Camarones, Loa, Copiapo, Huasco, Elqui, Limari and Choapa.
The Copiapo, which once discharged into the sea, is now practically exhausted in irrigating a small fertile valley in which stands the city of that name.
The Copiapo and Huasco have comparatively short courses, but they receive a considerable volume of water from the higher sierras.
The Trias is known only at La Ternera near Copiapo, where coal-seams with Rhaetic plants have been found; but the rest of the Mesozoic series, from the Lias to the Upper Cretaceous, appears to be represented without a break .of more than local importance.
At Copiapo, in 27° 22' S., 1300 ft.
The first is an arid desert absolutely barren along part of the coast, between Tacna and Copiapo, but with a coarse scanty vegetation near the Cordilleras along watercourses and on the slopes where moisture from the melting snows above percolates through the sand.
In the valleys of the Copiapo and Huasco rivers a meagre vegetation is to be found near their channels, apart from what is produced by irrigation, but the surface of the plateau and the dry river channels below the sierras are completely barren.
Communications.-Railway construction in Chile dates from 1850, when work was begun on a short line between Copiapo and the port of Caldera, in the Atacama desert region.
The development of the coal deposits in the provinces of Concepcion and Arauco has made possible other industries besides those of smelting mineral ores, and numerous small manufacturing establishments have resulted, especially in Santiago, Valparaiso, Copiapo and other places where no permanent water power exists.
Internal development was promoted by the working of the silver mines of Copiapo and the coal mines of Lota, by the building of railways and erection of telegraphs, and by the colonization of the rich Valdivia province with German settlers.
Krohnke into Copiapo, Chile, in 1860, the silver mineral of the pulverized ore is decomposed in a revolving barrel by a hot solution of cuprous chloride in brine in the presence of zinc or lead and quicksilver (see B.