Orders: Copepoda, Cladocera, Siphonostoma, Lernaeida, Cirripedia.
The Copepoda have normally a segmented body, not enclosed in a bivalved shell-covering, the segments not exceeding eleven, the limbs not branchial.
The constituents of the last have often been classed as Copepoda, and among the Branchiopods must be regarded as aberrant, since the "branchial tail " implied in the name has no feet, and the actual feet are by no means obviously branchial.
C. Thompson, "Copepoda of Liverpool Bay," Trans.
St Petersburg, " Caspian Entomostraca " (1897); Giesbrecht and Schmeil, " Copepoda gymnoplea," Das Tierreich (1898); Giesbrecht, " Asterocheriden," F.
25, 1899); Bassett-Smith, Copepoda on Fishes," Proc. Zool.
None has the power of flight, though certain pelagic Copepoda are said to leap from the surface of the sea like flying-fish.
The parasitic habit is most common among the Copepoda and Isopoda, where it leads to complex modifications of structure and life-history.
Many of the larger species of Crustacea are used as food by man, the most valuable being the lobster, which is caught in large quantities on both sides of the North Altantic. Perhaps the most important of all Crustacea, however, with respect to the part which they play in the economy of nature, are the minute pelagic Copepoda, of which incalculable myriads form an important constituent of the " plankton " in all the seas of the globe.
The Copepoda live upon the diatoms and other important microscopic vegetable life at the surface of the sea, and in their turn serve as food for fishes and other larger forms and thus, indirectly, for man himself.
Sometimes they are applied, as in the Copepoda, to the limb-bearing and limbless regions of the trunk, while in other cases, as in the Phyllopoda, they denote, respectively, the regions in front of and behind the genital apertures.
It seems likely that a similar explanation is to be applied to the coalescence of one or two trunk-somites with the head in the Copepoda, and, if this be so, the only Crustacea remaining in which no trace of a shell-fold is found in the adult are the Anostracous Phyllopoda such as Branchipus (fig.
This simple biramous form is shown in the swimming-feet of the Copepoda and Branchiura, the " cirri " of the Cirripedia, and the abdominal appendages of the Malacostraca (fig.
They may, however, be natatory as in many Ostracoda and Copepoda, or prehensile, as in some Copepoda.
In many Entomostraca (Phyllopoda, Cladocera, Ostracoda, Copepoda) they are important, and sometimes the only, organs of locomotion.
They are frequently organs of attachment in parasitic Copepoda, and they may be completely pediform in the Ostracoda.
This form is retained, with little alteration in some adult Copepoda, where the biramous " palp " still aids in locomotion.
In the Cirripedia (Thyrostraca) the six pairs of biramous cirriform limbs differ only slightly from each other, and in many Copepoda this is also the case.
In many of the smaller Entomostraca (Copepoda and most Ostracoda) no special gills are present, and respiration is carried on by the general surface of the body and limbs.
In the parasitic Rhizocephala and in a few Copepoda (Monstrillidae) the alimentary canal is absent or vestigial throughout life.
A very remarkable condition of the blood-system, unique, as far as is yet known among the Arthropoda, is found in a few genera of parasitic Copepoda (Lernanthropus, Mytilicola).
Copepoda) it forms the sole organ of vision in the adult.
In the Copepoda the median eye may undergo considerable elaboration, and refracting lenses and other accessory structures may be developed in connexion with it.
In some freshwater Copepoda the secretion of the dermal glands forms a gelatinous envelope, by means of which the animals are able to survive desiccation.
In certain Copepoda and Ostracoda glands of the same type produce a phosphorescent substance, and others, in certain Amphipoda and Branchiura, are believed to have a poisonous function.
- Many Crustacea belonging to very different groups (Ostracoda, Copepoda, Schizopoda, Decapoda) possess the power of emitting light.
In the Ostracoda and Copepoda the phosphorescence, as already mentioned, is due to glands which produce a luminous secretion, and this is the case also in certain members of the Schizopoda and Decapoda.
In the parasitic Copepoda and Isopoda the disparity in size is carried to an extreme degree, and the minute male is attached, like a parasite, to the enormously larger female.
In the Copepoda they are agglutinated together into masses attached to the body of the female.
A nauplius larva differing only in details from the typical form just described is found in the majority of the Phyllopoda, Copepoda and Cirripedia, and in a more modified form, in some Ostracoda.
In these respects some of the Copepoda have retained characters which we must regard as much more primitive.
In other respects, however, such as the absence of paired eyes and of a shell-fold, as well as in the characters of the post-oral limbs, the Copepoda are undoubtedly specialized.
The Copepoda must have separated themselves very early, though perhaps some of their characters may be persistently larval rather than phylogenetically primitive.