From Manhao the transit is by coolies or pack animals.
For some time nearly all its inhabitants were railway officials and Indian coolies engaged in the construction of the line.
Reluctantly he agreed, with the assent of the home government, to the proposal of the mineowners to import Chinese coolies on a three years' contract, the first batch of Chinese reaching the Rand in June 1904.
On behalf of the Liberal government an amendment was moved, stating that "This House, while recording its condemnation of the flogging of Chinese coolies in breach of the law, desires, in the interests of peace and conciliation in South Africa, to refrain from passing censure upon individuals."
The coolies are employed chiefly on the sugar, coffee, cotton and other plantations, a small proportion being employed in the coal-mines.
The first coolies reached Natal in 1860.
By that year the natives from Portuguese territory and elsewhere who had found employment in Natal had been attracted to the Kimberley diamond mines, and the Natal natives not coming forward (save under compulsion), the importation of Indian coolies was again permitted (see the Natal Blue Book, Report of the Indian Immigration Cornmission, rgog).
The objections to the introduction of the Chinese, urged in South Africa, in Great Britain and in other parts of the British Empire, are discussed under South Africa: History, § D.; here it need only be added that in the Transvaal the point upon which all parties were agreed was that no new racial or economic complications should be permitted; and these were guarded against by the restriction of the coolies to unskilled labour in the gold mines and by their compulsory repatriation.
The discussions in the legislative council on the Chinese coolie question had been accompanied by a demand on the part of the Boers that such an important step should not be taken " without the constitutional approval of the white people of the Transvaal "; and after the importation of the coolies had begun, the agitation for the grant of representative institutions grew in volume.
4 The government, which obtained an imperial guarantee for a loan of X5,000,000, announced that while there would be no wholesale repatriation of Chinese, the labour ordinance under which they were recruited would not be renewed, and by February 1910 all the Chinese coolies had returned home.
2 The letters patent provided, as to the Chinese coolies, that no further licences be issued for the introduction of indentured labour, and that none of the contracts be renewed.
But Lord Salisbury's retirement, Unionist divisions, the staleness of the ministry, and the accumulating opposition in the country to the Education Act of 1 9 02 and to the continued weight of taxation, together with the growth of the Labour movement, and the antagonism to the introduction of Chinese coolies (1904) into South Africa under conditions represented by Radical spokesmen as those of "slavery," made the political pendulum swing back.
It is called " basket sugar," and meets with a brisk sale, at remunerative prices, among the Chinese coolies; and as the sugar as soon as cooled is packed ready for market, without losing any weight by draining, this branch of sugar-making is a most lucrative one whereever there is sufficient local demand.
The work is done by Chinese coolies under European - chiefly Dutch - supervision.
The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
The difficulty in obtaining sufficient labour for the mines led to a successful agitation for the importation of coolies from China (see Transvaal: History).
During1904-1906over 50,000 coolies were brought to the mines, a greatly increased output being the result, the value of the gold extracted in 1905 exceeding £20,000,000.
In June 1907 the repatriation of the Chinese coolies began; it was completed in February 1910.
A large number of Chinese coolies who had been introduced to construct the railway congregated in the towns on the completion of the work, and in 1885 serious anti-Chinese riots led to the declaration of martial law by the governor and to the use of United States troops.
A tremendous rainstorm imposed further delays, for the coolies and the native transport that had been laboriously collected scattered in all directions.
In Mauritius and the Seychelles the Church Missionary Society and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel are at work, especially among the coolies on the sugar plantations.
The plantation labourers are almost entirely alien coolies, largely Chinese, and the Malays are comparatively few in number.
These bales are carried on the backs of coolies for great distances across very high passes into Tibet, and the trade is estimated at an average of 19,000,000 lb per annum, of which 8,000,000 is a subsidy from the emperor of China to the Tibetan monasteries.
He incurred much ill-informed odium by sanctioning the scheme of importing Chinese coolies into Johannesburg, in order to remedy the shortness of native labour and to restart the mines, and thereby the whole economic machinery of S.
The introduction of Indian coolies to work the sugar plantations dates from the period of the emancipation of the slaves in 18 341839.
The Mahommedans number over 30,000, but the majority of the Indian coolies are Hindus.
Coolies were introduced to supply the place of the negroes, immigration being definitely sanctioned by the government of India in 1842.
Billiard, Voyage aux colonies orientales (1822); P. Beaton, Creoles and Coolies, or Five Years in Mauritius (1859); Paul Chasteau, Histoire et description de rile Maurice (1860); F.
Also to meet the requirements of the industry, an enormous number of coolies had to be brought into the province from other parts of India, and in recent years the supply of labour has begun to fall off, causing a rise in the cost of production.
During the decade 1891-1901, 596,856 coolies were imported, or about a tenth of the total population of the province.
The importation of coolies is controlled by an elaborate system of legislation, which provides for the registration of contracts, the medical inspection of coolies during the journey, and supervision over rates of pay, &c., on the gardens.
The number of foreigners in the population due to immigration by the tea-garden coolies was 775,844.
The native town is yearly extending, and though most of the inhabitants are small shop-keepers and coolies of the lowest class, the houses are for the most part well and solidly built of stone.
2 1907, coolies brought to Natal since 1860.
A notable departure from the labour policy of the other states was made by Natal in 1860, when Indian coolies were introduced.
The consent of the high commissioner and of the home government was obtained, and in June 1904 the first batch of coolies reached the Rand.
The South African objections were economic and racial, based on the results which had followed the introduction of Indian coolies into Natal.
In Natal these coolies had been allowed to remain after the completion of their indentures, and had succeeded in practically monopolizing the petty trade of the country.
But these objections were overcome by regulations which made repatriation compulsory, and which definitely restricted the coolies to unskilled labour in the mines.
In Great Britain, however, the restrictive regulations were precisely those which aroused criticism, the objection taken being that the conditions imposed were of a servile character, if they did not actually make the coolies " slaves.
By February 1910 the last of the coolies had been repatriated.
The Portuguese further agreed to facilitate the recruitment of natives in their territory for work in the Rand mines, and in consequence Kaffirs were obtained in sufficient numbers to replace the Chinese coolies as they were repatriated.
The filtrate or opium solution is concentrated by evaporation at the boiling point, with occasional stirring until of a proper consistence, the time required being from three to four hours; it is then removed from the fire and stirred with great vigour till cold, the cooling being accelerated by coolies with large fans.
About 1894 a party of coolies from Macao who had been working on the railway in the cataracts region endeavoured to return home overland.
There was also a slight immigration of coolies from India.
In view of the agitation then proceeding for the introduction of Chinese coolies to work the mines on the Rand, the Progressives declared their intention, if returned, to exclude them from the colony, and this declaration gained them some native votes.
Incidentally, by regulating the emigration of Chinese coolies, they had the unforeseen effect ofexposing the industrial markets of the world to the serious competition of cheap yellow labor.