These prisons received all sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, the long-term convicts going to the bagnes (the great convict prisons at the arsenals of Rochefort, Brest and Toulon), while in 1851 transportation to penal colonies was adopted.
The two first were convicts with shaven heads.
Then two pairs of Frenchmen approached the criminals and at the officer's command took the two convicts who stood first in the row.
Well, one night the convicts were gathered just as we are, with the old man among them.
They were naval or military officers in command of the garrison, the convicts and the few free settlers.
A population of 30,000, three- New fourths of them convicts, formed the infant common- South wealth, whose attention was soon directed to the profit- wales.
After the establishment of responsible government the main issue was how to tax the citizens.
The point of enduring interest as regards the Andamans is the penal system, the object of which is to turn the life-sentence and few long-sentence convicts, who alone are sent to the settlement, into honest, self-respecting men and women, by leading them along a continuous course of practice in self-help and self-restraint, and by offering them every inducement to take advantage of that practice.
The elementary education of the convicts' children is compulsory.
The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.
During nearly a quarter of a century he was engaged in negotiations with the government for the erection of a "Panopticon," for the central inspection of convicts; a plan suggested to him by a building designed by his brother Samuel, for the better supervision of his Russian shipwrights.
There is no penitentiary; the convicts are hired to the one highest bidder who contracts for their labour, and who undertakes, moreover, to lease all other persons convicted during the term of the lease, and sub-leases the prisoners.
The leased convicts are employed in the turpentine and lumber industries and in the phosphate works.
The 1232 convicts " on hand" at the close of 1908 were held in 38 camps, 4 being the minimum, and 160 the maximum number, at a camp. In 1908 two central hospitals for the prisoners were maintained by the lessee company.
Convicts not pardoned with an explicit restoration of suffrage privileges are disfranchised - a rare clause in the United States.
State convicts, and all places in which they are confined or employed, are under the supervision of a Board of Control appointed by the governor.
The leasing or hiring of state convicts is prohibited by the constitution, but parish convicts may be hired or leased for farm and factory work, work on roads and levees, and other public undertakings.
Such convicts are classified according to physical ability and a minimum rate is fixed for their hire, for not more than ten hours a day.
Many state convicts are employed in levee construction, and there are convict farms at Angola, Hope, Oakley and Monticello.
Employment is furnished for the convicts on the pentitentiary premises by incorporated companies.
Raskolniks or Nonconformists in the second half of the 17th century, rebel stryeltsy under Peter the Great, courtiers of rank during the reigns of the empresses, Polish confederates under Catherine II., the " Decembrists " under Nicholas I., nearly 50,000 Poles after the insurrection of 1863, and later on whole generations of socialists were sent to Siberia; while the number of common-law convicts and exiles transported thither increased steadily from the end of the 18th century.
After liberation the hard-labour convicts are settled in villages; but nearly all are in a wretched condition, and more than one-third have disappeared without being accounted for.
In pursuance of his commission he arrived at Bahia in April 1549, with a fleet of six vessels, on board of which were three hundred and twenty persons in the king's pay, four hundred convicts and about three hundred free colonists.
Outside the town stands the largest prison in Rumania; beyond this are the mines, worked, since 1870, by convicts, who receive a small wage.
In 1898, however, the introduction of convicts into the island ceased.
Cheap agricultural labour is supplied by the convicts, by the liberated convicts, the Kanakas, and (to some extent) labourers from the New Hebrides.
The convict lease system in its most objectionable form was abolished in 1883, and convicts are now employed on state account or by private contract.
Since 1895 indeterminate sentences have been imposed on all convicts sentenced to the state prison otherwise than for life or as habitual criminals; i.e.
The details of population included sex, children and adults respectively, religion and status, that is whether free (immigrants or liberated convicts), on ticket-of-leave, or under restraint.
It was discovered in 1774 by Captain Cook, and was taken by Philip King of the "Stirling" and twenty-four convicts from New South Wales.
Suffrage is conferred upon all adult citizens of the United States (including women, 1910) who have lived in the state one year, in the county ninety days, and in the city, town, ward or precinct thirty days immediately preceding the election, and are able to read and speak the English language; Indians who are not taxed, idiots, insane persons and convicts are debarred.
In 1796 it was made a penal settlement, and 700 convicts were transferred thither from the Andaman Islands.
The chief towns are Algiers, the capital and principal seaport, with a population (1906), including Mustapha and other suburbs, of 154,049; Oran (100,499),' a western The figures given are not those of the communes, but of the towns proper, certain classes of persons (such as troops, lunatics, convicts) excluded from the municipal franchise not being counted.
He returned to the mainland at the head of 200 convicts, and committed further excesses in the Terra di Lavoro; but the French troops were everywhere on the alert to capture him and he had to take refuge in the woods of Lenola.
In addition to the usual method of employing convicts in the penitentiary or on state farms, Alabama, like other southern states, also hires its convicts to labour for private individuals.
In 1866 the lease system was introduced, by which the convicts were leased for a term of years to private individuals.
But the contract system for convicts and the peonage system (under which immigrants were held in practical slavery while they " worked out " advances made for passage-money, &c.) were still sources of much injustice.
In September 1908, after an investigation which showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its pro rata share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory established by this law.
In all, or practically all, the states idiots, convicts and the insane are disqualified; in some states paupers; in some of the Western states the Chinese.
His literary career began in 1842 with the publication of an essay, in Russian, on Dilettantism in Science, under the pseudonym of "Iskander," the Turkish form of his Christian name - convicts, even when pardoned, not being allowed in those days to publish under their own names.
The population of these islands was 400 (principally convicts) on Chatham Island in 1901, about 115 on Albemarle and 3 on Charles Island in 1903.
Convicts with more than six years to serve are transported to the Andaman Islands, where the penal settlement is organized on an elaborate system, permitting ultimately self-support on a ticket of leave and even marriage.
In 1907 the daily average gaol population in India was 87,306, while the convicts in the Andamans numbered 14,235.
He succeeded beyond expectation, and with his " Christian army of the Holy Faith " (Esercito Cristiano della Santa Fede), consisting of brigands, convicts, peasants and some soldiers, marched through the kingdom plundering, burning and massacring.
But though the Dutch built a fort at Grand Port and introduced a number of slaves and convicts, they made no permanent settlement in Mauritius, finally abandoning the island in 17r0.
The third stage in Sir George Grey's scheme contemplated the enforced emigration of released convicts, whom the discipline of separation and public works was supposed to have purged and purified, and who would have better hopes of entering on a new career of honest industry in a new country than when thrown back among vicious associations at home.
But this single receptacle could not absorb a tithe of the whole number of convicts awaiting exile.
No effective supervision was maintained over these convicts at large.
The first was far less than the work free men did for a livelihood, the second larger, the third excessive, so that convicts often left prisons with thirty, forty, even eighty pounds in their pockets.
In support of his theory he devised an ingenious system of recording the convicts' daily industry by marks, which on reaching a given total would entitle them to their release.
There had been a very marked diminution in crime, attributable it was supposed to this system, which was in almost all respects the same as the English, although the Irish authorities had invented an "intermediate stage" in which convicts worked in a state of semi-freedom and thus practised the self-reliance which in many produced reform.
But we owe something to the Irish practice which first popularized the idea of maintaining a strict supervision over convicts in a state of conditional release, and it reconciled us to a system which was long wrongfully stigmatized as espionage.
A special class was formed in 1880, in which all convicts "not versed in crime," first offenders and comparatively innocent men, are now kept apart from the older and more hardened criminals.
Since then, steps have been taken in the classification of convicts when undergoing sentence with a view to dealing more effectually with habitual criminals.
At Borstal a line of forty intended to protect Chatham on the south and west have been erected by convicts; they have also built magazines at Chattenden on the left bank of the Medway.
Other measures are set forth in the new classification of convicts, prescribed by the secretary of state in the rules submitted by him to the House of Commons in 1904.
All convicts are classed in three categories, viz.
In reply to an inquiry about the convicts in the prison, Count Rostopchin shouted angrily at the governor:
The convicts stopped when they reached the post and, while sacks were being brought, looked dumbly around as a wounded beast looks at an approaching huntsman.
There is an unlimited variety of work for the labouring convicts, and some of the establishments are on a large scale.
The number of convicts has somewhat diminished of late years and in 1901 stood at 11,947.
The total population of the settlement, consisting of convicts, their guards, the supervising, clerical and departmental staff, with the families of the latter, also a certain number of ex-convicts and trading settlers and their families, numbered 16,106.
The labouring convicts are distributed among four jails and nineteen stations; the self-supporters in thirtyeight villages.
The state prison is at Raleigh, although most of the convicts are distributed upon farms owned and operated by the state.
In 1889 the convicts were placed under the care of a supervisor of convicts, and in 1905 the law was amended so that one or more supervisors could be appointed at the will of the governors.