The two first were convicts with shaven heads.
Then two pairs of Frenchmen approached the criminals and at the officer's command took the two convicts who stood first in the row.
Well, one night the convicts were gathered just as we are, with the old man among them.
These prisons received all sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, the long-term convicts going to the bagnes (the great convict prisons at the arsenals of Rochefort, Brest and Toulon), while in 1851 transportation to penal colonies was adopted.
They were naval or military officers in command of the garrison, the convicts and the few free settlers.
A population of 30,000, three- New fourths of them convicts, formed the infant common- South wealth, whose attention was soon directed to the profit- wales.
After the establishment of responsible government the main issue was how to tax the citizens.
The point of enduring interest as regards the Andamans is the penal system, the object of which is to turn the life-sentence and few long-sentence convicts, who alone are sent to the settlement, into honest, self-respecting men and women, by leading them along a continuous course of practice in self-help and self-restraint, and by offering them every inducement to take advantage of that practice.
There is an unlimited variety of work for the labouring convicts, and some of the establishments are on a large scale.
The number of convicts has somewhat diminished of late years and in 1901 stood at 11,947.
The total population of the settlement, consisting of convicts, their guards, the supervising, clerical and departmental staff, with the families of the latter, also a certain number of ex-convicts and trading settlers and their families, numbered 16,106.
The labouring convicts are distributed among four jails and nineteen stations; the self-supporters in thirtyeight villages.
The elementary education of the convicts' children is compulsory.
The state prison is at Raleigh, although most of the convicts are distributed upon farms owned and operated by the state.
The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.
During nearly a quarter of a century he was engaged in negotiations with the government for the erection of a "Panopticon," for the central inspection of convicts; a plan suggested to him by a building designed by his brother Samuel, for the better supervision of his Russian shipwrights.
There is no penitentiary; the convicts are hired to the one highest bidder who contracts for their labour, and who undertakes, moreover, to lease all other persons convicted during the term of the lease, and sub-leases the prisoners.
In 1889 the convicts were placed under the care of a supervisor of convicts, and in 1905 the law was amended so that one or more supervisors could be appointed at the will of the governors.
The leased convicts are employed in the turpentine and lumber industries and in the phosphate works.
The 1232 convicts " on hand" at the close of 1908 were held in 38 camps, 4 being the minimum, and 160 the maximum number, at a camp. In 1908 two central hospitals for the prisoners were maintained by the lessee company.
Convicts not pardoned with an explicit restoration of suffrage privileges are disfranchised - a rare clause in the United States.
State convicts, and all places in which they are confined or employed, are under the supervision of a Board of Control appointed by the governor.
The leasing or hiring of state convicts is prohibited by the constitution, but parish convicts may be hired or leased for farm and factory work, work on roads and levees, and other public undertakings.
Such convicts are classified according to physical ability and a minimum rate is fixed for their hire, for not more than ten hours a day.
Many state convicts are employed in levee construction, and there are convict farms at Angola, Hope, Oakley and Monticello.
Many of the colonists of the 18th century were convicts and other offenders; and in 1750 the trade became a monopoly in the hands of a private company.
Employment is furnished for the convicts on the pentitentiary premises by incorporated companies.
Raskolniks or Nonconformists in the second half of the 17th century, rebel stryeltsy under Peter the Great, courtiers of rank during the reigns of the empresses, Polish confederates under Catherine II., the " Decembrists " under Nicholas I., nearly 50,000 Poles after the insurrection of 1863, and later on whole generations of socialists were sent to Siberia; while the number of common-law convicts and exiles transported thither increased steadily from the end of the 18th century.
After liberation the hard-labour convicts are settled in villages; but nearly all are in a wretched condition, and more than one-third have disappeared without being accounted for.
In pursuance of his commission he arrived at Bahia in April 1549, with a fleet of six vessels, on board of which were three hundred and twenty persons in the king's pay, four hundred convicts and about three hundred free colonists.
Outside the town stands the largest prison in Rumania; beyond this are the mines, worked, since 1870, by convicts, who receive a small wage.
A special class was formed in 1880, in which all convicts "not versed in crime," first offenders and comparatively innocent men, are now kept apart from the older and more hardened criminals.
Since then, steps have been taken in the classification of convicts when undergoing sentence with a view to dealing more effectually with habitual criminals.
At Borstal a line of forty intended to protect Chatham on the south and west have been erected by convicts; they have also built magazines at Chattenden on the left bank of the Medway.
Other measures are set forth in the new classification of convicts, prescribed by the secretary of state in the rules submitted by him to the House of Commons in 1904.
All convicts are classed in three categories, viz.
The third stage in Sir George Grey's scheme contemplated the enforced emigration of released convicts, whom the discipline of separation and public works was supposed to have purged and purified, and who would have better hopes of entering on a new career of honest industry in a new country than when thrown back among vicious associations at home.
But this single receptacle could not absorb a tithe of the whole number of convicts awaiting exile.
No effective supervision was maintained over these convicts at large.
The first was far less than the work free men did for a livelihood, the second larger, the third excessive, so that convicts often left prisons with thirty, forty, even eighty pounds in their pockets.
In support of his theory he devised an ingenious system of recording the convicts' daily industry by marks, which on reaching a given total would entitle them to their release.
There had been a very marked diminution in crime, attributable it was supposed to this system, which was in almost all respects the same as the English, although the Irish authorities had invented an "intermediate stage" in which convicts worked in a state of semi-freedom and thus practised the self-reliance which in many produced reform.