Immediately west of the harbour are the convict station and Somerset hospital.
This leasing-out system has been carried further in some of the southern states, and has produced the convict camps, which have been much criticized and condemned from the harshness of the discipline enforced, the many abuses that exist and the meagre results other than monetary that have been obtained.
The right to deal with the property of a convict while he is undergoing sentence (but not while he is out of prison on leave) is, by the Forfeiture Act 1870, vested in his administrator.
In the ensuing trial at Richmond the prisoners were released for lack of sufficient evidence to convict, and Wilkinson himself emerged with a much damaged reputation.
It is situated on the Parramatta River, an arm of Port Jackson, and was one of the earliest inland settlements (1788), the seat of many of the public establishments connected with the working of the convict system.
East of the city is the Pecos Forest Reserve, across which the Territory undertook the building, with convict labour, of a "scenic highway" from Santa Fe to Las Vegas.
The appearance of a convict ship at the Cape of Good Hope nearly produced a revolt.
According to the committee, every convict should have it in his power to earn a remission - in other words, to shorten his sentence by his industry.
He was the author of several volumes of poetry of considerable merit, and of a novel of convict life, Moondyne, which achieved a great success.
The convict lease system was abolished by the constitution of 1890 (the provision to take effect on the 31st of December 1894), and state farms were purchased in Rankin, Hinds and Holmes counties.
Many state convicts are employed in levee construction, and there are convict farms at Angola, Hope, Oakley and Monticello.
The general prison for Scotland, south of the South Inch, was originally erected in 1812 as a depat for French prisoners, but was remodelled as a convict prison in 1840 and afterwards enlarged.
At Merxplas, near the Dutch frontier, is the agricultural criminal colony at which an average number of two thousand prisoners are kept employed in comparative liberty within the radius of the convict settlement.
But what were the distinctions and sophisms of the theologians for, if they could not remove such contradictions, and convict their opponents of heresy?
The Andaman colony obtained a tragical notoriety from the murder of the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, by a Mahommedan convict, when on a visit to the settlement on the 8th of February 1872.
In 1897 this was supplanted by the contract system, by which a prison commission accepted contracts for convict labour, but the prisoners were cared for by state officials.
In September 1908, after an investigation which showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its pro rata share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory established by this law.
The town has rope and carriage factories, and close by is a large tannery, worked by convict labour, and supplying the army.
By eloquence, readiness of wit, and adroit flattery of the jury he contrived to secure his acquittal in the face of the open hostility of the judge - a unique achievement at a time when the condemnation of prisoners whom the authorities wished to convict was a mere matter of course.
But his second term derives most of its historical interest from the unsuccessful efforts to convict Aaron Burr of treasonable acts in the south-west, and from the efforts made to maintain, without war, the rights of neutrals on the high seas.
Although the hulks at home had been condemned, convict establishments in which these floating prisons still formed the principal part were organized at Bermuda and Gibraltar.
Dartmoor was opened in 1850; two years later a convict prison was established at Portsmouth in connexion with the dockyard, and another of the same class at Chatham in 1856.
Besides this, convict labour has been usefully employed in the erection of prison buildings at new points or in extension of those at the old.
Having earned his remission the convict enters upon the third stage of his punishment.
In parts of the state it became impossible to get a jury composed of these small squatters to convict anybody for stealing or killing cattle, and so bad did this become that, in 1892, certain cattlemen formed a small army of mounted men and invaded the central part of the state with the avowed intention of killing all the men generally considered to be stock thieves, an episode known as the Johnson County Raid.
Mines were also taken over for public use and worked by slaves or, in later times, by convict labour.
Letters exist written by Colbert to the judges requiring them to sentence to the oar as many criminals as possible, including all those who had been condemned to death; and the convict once chained to the bench, the expiration of his sentence was seldom allowed to bring him release.
For many years after its discovery it was used as a convict station.
After ten years' graduated labour the convict is given a ticket-of-leave and becomes selfsupporting.
They were long worked by convict labour, owing to their unhealthy atmosphere; and exemption from military service is granted to miners who have worked at Almaden for two years.
A little reconstruction made Dartmoor into a modern gaol, and in the waste lands around there was ample labour for any number of convict hands.
In the vicinity are the Surrey county asylum and a female convict prison.
Outrages on shipwrecked crews continued so rife that the question of occupation had to be taken up again; and in 1855 a project was formed for such a settlement, embracing a convict establishment.