The old man was living as a convict, submitting as he should and doing no wrong.
This leasing-out system has been carried further in some of the southern states, and has produced the convict camps, which have been much criticized and condemned from the harshness of the discipline enforced, the many abuses that exist and the meagre results other than monetary that have been obtained.
Convict mechanics are rarely found ready made.
In September 1908, after an investigation which showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its pro rata share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory established by this law.
It was also proposed to give four lectures or concerts a year in convict prisons.
The right to deal with the property of a convict while he is undergoing sentence (but not while he is out of prison on leave) is, by the Forfeiture Act 1870, vested in his administrator.
They were Apostles, I am a convict; they were free, but I am a slave to this very hour " (Rom.
About a mile to the south is the convict prison for Scotland.
The judges and lawyers began to question the legality of his ordinances, and to doubt their competency to convict royalist prisoners of treason.
In the ensuing trial at Richmond the prisoners were released for lack of sufficient evidence to convict, and Wilkinson himself emerged with a much damaged reputation.
Immediately west of the harbour are the convict station and Somerset hospital.
In1896-1897the total accruing from manufactures, farm operations and the ordinary service of the prison was £213,812, the prison population in local and convict prisons being 17,614; in1903-1904the total amounted to £244,518, the prison population on the 31st of March 1904 being 21,117.
Very similar operations have been carried out in Austria-Hungary, where large tracts of land have been brought into cultivation, and watercourses have been diverted successfully despite serious difficulties, climatic and physical; in Russia convict labour has been largely used in the construction of the Trans-siberian railway; the military operations in the Sudan were greatly aided by convict labourers engaged in useful work at the base and all along the line; Italy passed a law in 1904 enacting outdoor labour for the reclamation and draining of waste lands by prisoners under long sentence; and France, although much wedded to cellular imprisonment, is beginning to favour extra-mural employment of prisoners under strict regulations.
It is easy to convict him of having failed to control the glowing passion that was in him.
The appearance of a convict ship at the Cape of Good Hope nearly produced a revolt.
At Merxplas, near the Dutch frontier, is the agricultural criminal colony at which an average number of two thousand prisoners are kept employed in comparative liberty within the radius of the convict settlement.
Having earned his remission the convict enters upon the third stage of his punishment.
He was the author of several volumes of poetry of considerable merit, and of a novel of convict life, Moondyne, which achieved a great success.
The convict lease system was abolished by the constitution of 1890 (the provision to take effect on the 31st of December 1894), and state farms were purchased in Rankin, Hinds and Holmes counties.
It is situated on the Parramatta River, an arm of Port Jackson, and was one of the earliest inland settlements (1788), the seat of many of the public establishments connected with the working of the convict system.
The general prison for Scotland, south of the South Inch, was originally erected in 1812 as a depat for French prisoners, but was remodelled as a convict prison in 1840 and afterwards enlarged.
But what were the distinctions and sophisms of the theologians for, if they could not remove such contradictions, and convict their opponents of heresy?
After ten years' graduated labour the convict is given a ticket-of-leave and becomes selfsupporting.
The Andaman colony obtained a tragical notoriety from the murder of the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, by a Mahommedan convict, when on a visit to the settlement on the 8th of February 1872.
Many state convicts are employed in levee construction, and there are convict farms at Angola, Hope, Oakley and Monticello.
In 1897 this was supplanted by the contract system, by which a prison commission accepted contracts for convict labour, but the prisoners were cared for by state officials.
The town has rope and carriage factories, and close by is a large tannery, worked by convict labour, and supplying the army.
By eloquence, readiness of wit, and adroit flattery of the jury he contrived to secure his acquittal in the face of the open hostility of the judge - a unique achievement at a time when the condemnation of prisoners whom the authorities wished to convict was a mere matter of course.
But his second term derives most of its historical interest from the unsuccessful efforts to convict Aaron Burr of treasonable acts in the south-west, and from the efforts made to maintain, without war, the rights of neutrals on the high seas.
Although the hulks at home had been condemned, convict establishments in which these floating prisons still formed the principal part were organized at Bermuda and Gibraltar.
Dartmoor was opened in 1850; two years later a convict prison was established at Portsmouth in connexion with the dockyard, and another of the same class at Chatham in 1856.
According to the committee, every convict should have it in his power to earn a remission - in other words, to shorten his sentence by his industry.
Besides this, convict labour has been usefully employed in the erection of prison buildings at new points or in extension of those at the old.
In parts of the state it became impossible to get a jury composed of these small squatters to convict anybody for stealing or killing cattle, and so bad did this become that, in 1892, certain cattlemen formed a small army of mounted men and invaded the central part of the state with the avowed intention of killing all the men generally considered to be stock thieves, an episode known as the Johnson County Raid.
Mines were also taken over for public use and worked by slaves or, in later times, by convict labour.
Letters exist written by Colbert to the judges requiring them to sentence to the oar as many criminals as possible, including all those who had been condemned to death; and the convict once chained to the bench, the expiration of his sentence was seldom allowed to bring him release.
For many years after its discovery it was used as a convict station.
The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.
They were long worked by convict labour, owing to their unhealthy atmosphere; and exemption from military service is granted to miners who have worked at Almaden for two years.
A little reconstruction made Dartmoor into a modern gaol, and in the waste lands around there was ample labour for any number of convict hands.
But although sentences were shortened it was not thought safe to surrender all control over the released convict; and he was only granted a ticket-of-leave for the unexpired portion of his original sentence.
The one outlet remaining, however, that of Western Australia, was soon afterwards (1867) closed to convict emigrants; and this part of the committee's recommendations became a dead letter.
The prisoner becomes a convict and undergoes his penalty in one or more of the convict prisons.
In the first stage, which was limited to six months, but which it is proposed to reduce to one month, the convict passes his whole time in his cell apart from other prisoners, engaged at 'some industrial employment.
The second is a longer stage and endures for the whole or a greater part of the remainder of the sentence, its duration being governed by the power a convict holds in his own hands to earn a remission.
Certain types of dangerous individuals are relegated after serving a sentence in the ordinary convict prisons, and by administrative, not by judicial process, to special penal colonies known as domicilii coatti or forced residences.
Meanwhile his servant, who was said to have been the intermediary between the duke and the Company in the transaction, fled the country; and no evidence being obtainable to convict, the proceedings fell to the ground.
Have been set apart for regular forest operations which are carried on by convict labour.
Outrages on shipwrecked crews continued so rife that the question of occupation had to be taken up again; and in 1855 a project was formed for such a settlement, embracing a convict establishment.
High, a large convict prison for men, an industrial, commercial and other schools.
In the vicinity are the Surrey county asylum and a female convict prison.
The convict lease system in its most objectionable form was abolished in 1883, and convicts are now employed on state account or by private contract.
But tie yourself up with a woman and, like a chained convict, you lose all freedom!
In return the state receives the produce of convict labor in Guiana and New Caledonia.
Trying to convict her, he told her she had worn him out, had caused his quarrel with his son, had harbored nasty suspicions of him, making it the object of her life to poison his existence, and he drove her from his study telling her that if she did not go away it was all the same to him.
These prisons received all sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, the long-term convicts going to the bagnes (the great convict prisons at the arsenals of Rochefort, Brest and Toulon), while in 1851 transportation to penal colonies was adopted.
The Labour movement in Australia may be traced back to the early days when transportation was in vogue, and the free immigrant and the time-expired convict objected to the competition of the bond labourer.
The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison, and finally the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous.
The scope of Congressional legislation has been indicated in the list given of the powers of the national government - 1 This case was that of the impeachment of a senator, and the failure to convict arose from the fact that some of the senators at the time held the now generally accepted opinion that a member of Congress is not subject to impeachment.
East of the city is the Pecos Forest Reserve, across which the Territory undertook the building, with convict labour, of a "scenic highway" from Santa Fe to Las Vegas.
Added a convict prison.
The chief objection to enforced labour has been the difficulty in ensuring this; but the convict nowadays eagerly tries his best, because only thus can he win privileges while in prison and an earlier release from it.
He subsequently organized the expedition which rescued all the Irish military political prisoners from the 'Western Australia convict establishments (1876), and he aided and abetted the American propaganda in favour of Irish nationalism.
The convict is not eligible for release or licence, but when the time of conditional liberation would have formerly arrived the case is submitted to the authorities and dealt with on its merits.
Of appeal or inquiry as to the state of mind or health of the convict, or to enable him to apply for a pardon.
The franchise is granted to every male Cuban twenty-one years of age, not mentally incapacitated, nor previously a convict of crime, nor serving in the army or navy of the state.