The corn-growers and the revenue collectors were ruined by exorbitant imposts or by the iniquitous cancelling of contracts; temples and private houses were robbed of their works of art; and the rights of Roman citizens were disregarded.
In March 1902 agrarian strikes organized by the leg/fe broke out in the district of Copparo and Polesine (lower valley of the Po), owing to a dispute about the labor contracts, and in Apulia on account of unemployment.
In the spring of 1908 there were agrarian strikes at Parma; the labor contracts had pressed hardly on the peasantry, who had cause for complaint; but while some improvement had been effected in the new contracts, certain unscrupulous demagogues, of whom Alceste De Ambris, representing the syndacalist wing of the Socialist party, was the chief, organized a widespread agitation.
The relations of their bishops, priests or other ministers and lay office-bearers inter se and to their lay folk depend upon contract; and these Y P P contracts will be enforced by the ordinary courts of law.
Inland, when it contracts into what is known as the Rio Olambo, which is not more than 2 or 3 m.
As the sun loses heat it contracts, and every pair of particles in the sun are nearer to each other after the contraction than they were before.
The sun is thus slowly contracting; but as it contracts it gains heat by the operation of the law just referred to, and thus the further cooling and further contraction of the sun is protracted until the additional heat obtained is radiated away.
Contracts for large or important works or for the supply of large amounts of goods are usually put out to tender in order to secure the lowest price.
Under the present constitution they are "fully emancipated from all disability on account of coverture," and are placed on an equality with their husbands in acquiring and disposing of property and in making contracts relative thereto.
Under the revised code (1905) a wife may hold property which she had acquired before marriage free from any obligation of her husband, but in general she is not permitted to make contracts affecting either her personal or real estate without the written consent of her husband.
Jeremiah Mason (1768-1848), a lawyer of the first rank, Jeremiah Smith and Webster appeared for the college, and argued that these acts were invalid because they were not within the general scope of the legislature's power, because they violated provisions of the state constitution and because they violated the clause of the Federal Constitution which prohibits a state from impairing the obligation of contracts but the court decided against them.
Depilans; it is firm to the touch, and contracts forcibly when irritated; the secretion of the mantle-glands is not abundant, and is milky white in appearance.
When the spiracles are open and the body contracts, air is expired.
Some contracts dating from his reign have been found in Babylonia, where his name is spelt Barziya (for the chronology cf.
But, with advancing civilization and the consequent increase in the number of the conditions to be imposed on both parties, leases became mutual contracts, bilateral in form.
Narrow sense, and also " options " and " straddles "; narrowly it implies merely contracts for future delivery at a price fixed in the present.
Again we must distinguish between the " future " contracts for the delivery of a particular kind of cotton, which may be entered into by spinners and their brokers, and are real purchases in the sense that the spinners want delivery of the cotton referred to, and the "futures," which always relate 1 The Cotton Trade of Great Britain, by Thomas Ellison, p. 186.
On first thoughts it would seem desirable that all spinners should buy cotton outright to cover their contracts, but on second thoughts the social disadvantage of their doing so becomes apparent.
But what, it may be inquired, is the value of " futures " relating to " middling " cotton to a broker whose contracts with spinners are not in " middling " cotton?
The province of the court included all acts and contracts between burgesses, and extended to criminal cases in which burgesses were involved.
There is no penitentiary; the convicts are hired to the one highest bidder who contracts for their labour, and who undertakes, moreover, to lease all other persons convicted during the term of the lease, and sub-leases the prisoners.
C. 3) provided that "of all manner of contracts, pleas and quarrels, and other things rising within the bodies of the counties as well by land as by water, and also of wreck of the sea, the admiral's court shall have no manner of cognizance, power, nor jurisdiction; but all such manner of contracts, pleas and quarrels, and all other things rising within the bodies of counties, as well by land as by water, as afore, and also wreck of the sea, shall be tried, determined, discussed and remedied by the laws of the land, and not before nor by the admiral, nor his lieutenant in any wise.
It is due to the memory of the judges of Lord Coke's time to say that, at any rate as regards contracts made in partibus transmarinis, the same rule appears to have been applied at least as early as 1544, the judges then holding that "for actions transitory abroad action may lie at common law."
The civil and religious contracts took place at Paris early in April, and during the honeymoon, spent at the palace of Compiegne, the emperor showed the greatest regard for his wife.
There were treaties between states for the extradition of fugitives, and contracts of mutual assurance between individuals against their loss by flight.
They could therefore supply their American possessions with slaves only by contracts with other powers.
His carelessness in keeping account of his receipts and expenditures, and the differences between himself and Arthur Lee regarding the contracts with Beaumarchais, eventually led, in November 1777, to his recall to face charges, of which Lee's complaints formed the basis.
At a later date he was charged by Burke with having taken up profitable contracts for supplying bullocks for the use of the Company's troops.
Since concordats are contracts they give rise to that special mutual obligation which results from every agreement freely entered into; for a contract is binding on both parties to it.
But with these reservations it must unhesitatingly be said that concordats are bilateral or synallagmatic contracts, from which results an equal mutual obligation for the two parties, who enter into a juridical engagement towards each other.
Troy benefited financially by the War of 1812, during which contracts for army beef were filled here.
It contracts again at its northern boundary to about 30 m.
Trans., 18 53, p. 357, 18 54, p. 321, and 1862, p. 579) showed that the statement that no internal work is done when a gas expands or contracts is not quite true, but the amount is very small in the cases of those gases which, like oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, can only be liquefied by intense cold and pressure.
The so-called " contracts," including a great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts and, most important of all, the actual legal decisions given by the judges in the law courts, exist in thousands.
In commercial matters, payment in kind was still common, though the contracts usually stipulate for cash, naming the standard expected, that of Babylon, Larsa, Assyria, Carchemish, &c. The Code enacted, however, that a debtor must be allowed to pay in produce according to statutory scale.
The debtor could also pledge his property, and in contracts often pledged a field, house or crop. The Code enacted, however, that the debtor should always take the crop himself and pay the creditor from it.
A sort of symbolic retaliation was the punishment of the offending member, seen in the cutting off the hand that struck a father or stole a trust; in cutting off the breast of a wet-nurse who substituted a changeling for the child entrusted to her; in the loss of the tongue that denied father or mother (in the Elamite contracts the same penalty was inflicted for perjury); in the loss of the eye that pried into forbidden secrets.
The contracts naturally do not concern such criminal cases as the above, as a rule, but marriage contracts do specify death by strangling, drowning, precipitation from a tower or pinnacle of the temple or by the iron sword for a wife's repudiation of her husband.
The judges might be satisfied of its existence and terms by the evidence of the witnesses to it, and then issue an order that whenever found it should be given up. Contracts annulled were ordered to be broken.
- Contracts in general; Oppert and Menant, Documents juridiques de l'Assyrie et de la Chaldee (Paris, 1877); J.
Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters (Edinburgh, 1904).
The possibility of reforming these contracts in some parts of the kingdom has been studied, in the hope of bringing them into closer harmony with the needs of rational cultivation and the exigencies of social justice.
In some of the Lombard mezzadria contracts taxes are paid by the cultivator.
On some small holdings, however, it exists with contracts lasting from two to six years.
Special contracts, known as colonie immovibili and colonie tern poranee are applied to the latifondi or huge estates, the owners of which receive half the produce, except that of the vines, olive-trees and woods, which he leases separately.
Improvement contracts also exist.
Improvement contracts are granted for uncultivated bush districts, where one fourth of the produce goes to the landlord, and for plantations of fig-trees, olive-trees and vines, half of the produce of which belongs to the landlord, who at the end of ten years reimburses the tenant for a part of the improvements effected.
The terms of agrarian contracts and leases (except in districts where mezzadria prevails in its essential form), are in many regions disadvantageous to the laborers, who suffer from the obligation to provide guarantees for payment of rent, for repayment of seed corn and for the division of products.
Conservatives, acceptance of the railway redemption contracts, consolidation of the financial equilibrium, abolition 01 the !QrCe~
The long-promised abolition of the grist tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium.
The railway redemption contracts were in fact immediately voted by parliament, with a clause pledging the government to legislate in favor of farming out the railways to private companies.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
(2) If, however, the worshipper place his god on a level with himself, so far at any rate as to make him to some extent dependent on the service man contracts to render him, then genuine prayer tends to be replaced by a mere bargaining, often conjoined with flattery and with insincere promises.
Some spinners cover their yarn contracts merely by buying " futures," but the cover thus provided is frequently most inadequate owing to variations in the " points on or off" for the particular cotton that they want.
The palace acted as a barracks for his assassins, who were trudging in after he ordered their contracts all cancelled.
The farmers, with these contracts in hand, can plant aggressively knowing they have a ready buyer at a fixed price.
If you made a product the military could use, government contracts came a-flowin'.