The trade was contraband, and the opium was bought by the Chinese from depot ships at the ports.
CHOUANS (a Bas-Breton word signifying screech-owls), the name applied to smugglers and dealers in contraband salt, who rose in insurrection in the west of France at the time of the Revolution and joined the royalists of La Vendee.
On the other, the complaint is based on the " interference " with neutral trade, which means the stoppage and search of vessels to ascertain whether they have contraband of any kind on board or not.
Of all English colonies, the Amcriea n were the mo~t nor,i,1n,~.;ind imnnrt~,nt, Their nio~iniilv to the ~nanish colonies in the West Indies had naturally led to a contraband trade.
Indeed, throughout the first half of the 18th century it was on a continuous war footing against English corsairs, making reprisals on British ships and thriving at the same time on a large contraband trade with Jamaica and other foreign colonies.
As regards Spanish America, England was content to profit by theAsiento treaty, which gave her the monopoly of slavehunting for the Spanish colonies and an opening for contraband trade.
As a fact, the commanders-in-chief on the East Indies and Cape of Good Hope stations were instructed that in consequence of the great practical difficulty of proving - at ports so remote from the scene of war operations as Aden and Perim - the real destination of contraband of war carried by vessels visiting those parts, directions were to be given to the officers concerned to cease to search such vessels, and to merely report to the commander-in-chief at the Cape the names of ships suspected of carrying contraband, and the date of clearance.
By them the United States was granted limited privileges of trade with the British East Indies; some provisions were made for reciprocal freedom of trade between the United States and the British dominions in Europe; some articles were specified under the head of "contraband of war"; it was agreed that whenever provisions were seized as contraband they should be paid for, and that in cases of the capture of a vessel carrying contraband goods such goods only and not the whole cargo should be seized; it was also agreed that no vessel should be seized merely because it was bound for a blockaded port, unless it attempted to enter the port after receiving notice of the blockade.
Originally a contraband manufacturer of salt, Cottereau along with his brothers had several times been condemned and served sentence; but the Revolution, by destroying the inland customs, ruined his trade.
Portugal observed neutrality on the outbreak of the AngloBoer War, but the permission it conceded to the British consul at Lourenco Marques to search for contraband of war among goods imported there, and the free passage accorded to an armed force under General Carrington from Beira through Portuguese territory to Rhodesia, were vehemently attacked in the Press and at public meetings.
He became well known in the country of Anjou, over which he travelled as a pedlar and dealer in contraband goods.
This was the result of the Armenian massacres, the wholesale emigration of Armenians of all classes, the accompanying profound political unrest throughout the country, and the great extension of contraband which ensued from it.
It seems contrary to common sense that neutral ships should be exposed to being detained, taken out of their course, and overhauled on mere suspicion of carrying contraband, when they are so far from the seat of war that there can be no presumption as to their destination.
Lord Lansdowne called the attention of the Russian foreign office to the extreme inconvenience to neutral commerce of the Russian search for contraband not only in the proximity of the scene of war, but over all the world, and especially at places at which neutral commerce could be most effectually intercepted.
The British government had no desire to place obstacles in the way of a belligerent desiring to take reasonable precautions in order to prevent the enemy from receiving supplies, but they insisted that the right of taking such precautions did not imply a " consequential right to intercept at any distance from the scene of operations and without proof that the supplies in question were really destined for use of the enemy's forces, any articles which that belligerent might determine to regard as contraband of war."
Foreign commerce, which of course was contraband, being contrary to all Spanish laws, was active by the begin ning of the 1 th century.
The enormous profits of the contraband trade with France enabled Ireland to purchase English goods to an extent greater than her whole lawful traffic. The moral effect was disastrous.
This state of things, it was plain, must continue as long as the trade was only a contraband commerce, involving merely pecuniary penalties.
The regie did badly during the first four years of its existence, owing principally to two causes: (1) its ineffectual power to deal with contraband to which the system described above leaves the door wide open; (2) the admission of other than Turkish tobaccos into Egypt, which deprived it at once of about fTioo,000 per annum.
Things went better with it from that time until 1894-1895, when, owing to internal troubles in the empire, and the consequent fear of creating worse disorders, by the strict enforcement of the monopoly, the government withdrew most of its support, and contraband enormously increased.
Down the river Cauto, then open to the sea for vessels of 200 tons, and through Manzanillo, Bayamo drove a thriving contraband trade that made it at the opening of the 17th century the leading town of Cuba.
Spanish pride resented the interference of an alliance in which Spain had no part; Great Britain could not afford to allow any action to be taken which might end in the re-establishment of the old Spanish colonial system and the destruction of the considerable British trade, still nominally contraband, which had grown up with the colonies during the troubles.
The belligerent has an unquestioned right to " interfere " with all neutral vessels navigating in the direction of the seat of war, for the purpose of ascertaining whether they are carrying any kind of contraband or not.
He acceded to it indeed (9th of July 1780) because he could not help doing so; but he had previously, by a separate treaty with England, on the 4th of July, come to an understanding with that power as to the meaning of the expression "contraband of war."
Some difficulties which arose regarding the exercise by the British government of the right of search for contraband of war were also used to stimulate public feeling.
In the West Indies Rodney, having received news of the breach with Holland early in the year, took the island of St Eustatius, which had been a great depot of contraband of war, on the 3rd of February.