At the same time it cannot be denied that these maps, unless the contours are inserted at short intervals, lack graphic expression.
The Mississippi river is skirted throughout the length of the state by contours of 400 to 600 ft.
The beetles are ovoid in shape, with smooth contours, and the elytra fit over the edges of the abdomen so as to enclose a supply of air, available for use when the insect remains under water.
If they were Semitic speakers, the present facial contours of the northern Semites, which have spread all over the world, are not Semitic at all: for the Egyptian Armenoids in the statues of the Old Kingdom look like Europeans, and must have been of " European " blood.
The hachured hills are based upon contours, and are of admirable commensurability.
The hills are hachured and in some instances contours at intervals of 50 metres are introduced.
The features of the ground on most of these maps are shown by contours at intervals of 10 metres.
They are printed in three colours, contours at intervals of 10 and 20 metres being in brown, incidental features (ravines, cliffs, glaciers) in black or blue.
The hills are shown by contours at intervals of 10 or loo ft.
The fields are small and composed of terraces by which the soil has been walled up along the contours of the hills, with enormous labour, to save it from being washed away.
Their present contours are wholly the result of wind action.
Ducarla, published his La France consideree da p s les dijferentes hauteurs de ses plaines (1791), upon which equidistant contours at intervals of 16 toises found a place.
The first of these methods yields a hypsographical, or - if the sea-bottom be included, in which case all contours are referred to a common datum line - a bathy hypsographical map. Carl Ritter, in 1806, employed graduated tints, increasing in lightness on proceeding from the lowlands to the highlands; while General F.
Thus Horsell, who was the first to introduce tints the ground, however, was made until towards the close of the 18th century, when horizontal contours and hachures regulated according to the angle of inclination of all slopes, were adopted.
Contours of this kind were first utilized by M.
Cruquius in his chart of the Merwede (1728); Philip Buache (x737) introduced such contours or isobaths (Gr.
Leuzinger and other able cartographers, however admirable as works of art, do not, from the point of utility, supersede the combination of horizontal contours with shaded slopes, such as have been long in use.
Given the area A of the plane between the two horizontal contours, the height h of the upper above the lower contour, the length of the upper contour 1, and the area of the face presented by the edge of the upper stratum l.h = A 1, the slope a is found to be tan a = h.l I (A - A i); hence its superficies, A = A2 sec a.
Carla, compiled a contoured map of France (1791), and it only needed the introduction of graduated tints between these contours to secure a graphic picture of the features of the ground.
(a) in outline, with contours in black, (b) with hills hachured in brown or black, and (c) printed in five colours.
The hills are shown in brown contours at intervals of io m.
It is printed in three colours, and gives contours at intervals of io metres.
The last is printed in five colours, the ground is shown in contours of io metres interval and grey stippling.
These include plane-table sections (Maalebordsblade), 1209 sheets on a scale of 1:20,000, with contours at intervals of 5 to io ft., published since 1830; Atlasblade of Jutland and of De Danske Der, on a scale of I :40,000, the former in 131 sheets, since 1870, the latter, on the same scale, in 94 sheets, since 1890, and still in progress, and a general staff map on a scale of 1: ioo,000, in 68 sheets, since 1890.
In Italy Tavulette rilevata on a scale of 1: 25,000 or 1: 50,000, with contours, based on surveys made 1862-1890, are being.
According to Kriimmel's calculation the areas of the ocean beyond various depths are as follows: - On the whole the floor of the ocean is very smooth in its contours, and great stretches can almost be called level.
Murray: So far as our knowledge goes, the present contours of the open Pacific Ocean are almost as they were in Palaeozoic times, and in the intervening ages changes of level and form have been slight.
But almost everywhere the vegetation serves to smooth the contours of the rugged hills, ferns, mosses and shrubs growing wherever their roots can cling, and leaving only the steepest crags uncovered to form, as in Tahiti, a striking contrast.
Some of the flows are still so young as to preserve their scoriaceous surface; here the shore-line of the lava contours evenly around the spurs and enters, bay-like, into the valleys of the enclosing mountains, occasionally isolating an outlying mass.
Where, on the other hand, the rock decays with smaller debris, the hills assume smoother contours, as in the slate hills running from the Kyles of Bute to Loch Lomond.
The subdued colour and soft contours of pewter render it once more a favoured material, peculiarly adapted to the methods of the art revival, and perhaps destined to supersede electro-plate for household purposes.
They would have found on the island, which is probably referred to under the name "Terraces of Incense" (from its step-like contours), the precious "auta trees" - whose divine dew, for use in the service of their gods, was their special quest - in greater abundance and in a larger number of species than any other country.
The flame-like P u t the matter in another processes and outliers are composed of way, if we could imagine writhing filaments, and the contours all the living cells of a are continually changing while the large oak or of a horse, colony moves as a whole.
Behind the Friedrichsbau is the Altan (161 o), or castle balcony, from which is obtained a view of great beauty, extending from the town beneath to the heights across the Neckar and over the broad luxuriant plain of the Rhine to Mannheim and the dim contours of the Hardt Mountains behind.
To sum up, then, while the main structural features of Ireland were impressed upon her before the opening of the Mesozoic era, her present outline and superficial contours date from an epoch of climatic and geographical change which falls within the human period.
In the fork of the North and South Platte are the Wild Cat Mountains with contours rising to 53 00 ft., in which Wild Cat Mountain, long reported as the highest point in the state, attains 5038 ft., Hogback Mountain 5082 ft., and various other hills - Gabe Rock (5006), Big Horn Mountain (4718), Coliseum Rock (5050), Scotts Bluff (4662) &c. - rise to heights of 45 00 to 5000 ft.
This theory, however, is not universally accepted, some authorities preferring to assume a succession of more strictly local elevations and depressions, connected with the recent volcanic activity of the Jaulan and Lija districts on the east bank, which brought the contours finally to their actual form.
The facial contours of the modern Jew are predominantly those of the ancient Hittite, who was certainly not a Semite.
Channel, and intended to introduce similar contours or isohypses (40s, height) for a representation of the land.
Penck on a scale of 1: i,000,000, which has been undertaken by the leading governments of the world, the ground is shown by contours at intervals of ioo metres (to be increased to 200 and Soo metres in mountainous districts); the strata are in graded tints, viz.
Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."
The same combination is possible if hills engraved in the ordinary manner are printed in colours, as is done in an edition of the i-inch ordnance map, with contours in red and hills hachured in brown.
The result is an approximation, for inequalities of the ground bounded by the two contours have not been considered.
More than 80 methods of showing the hills have found advocates since that time, but all methods must be based upon contours to be scientifically satisfactory.
21 a contours are based upon instrumental measurement, and as a whole these ordnance maps were undoubtedly superior in accuracy, with rare exceptions, to similar maps published by foreign governments.
The maps are based upon the cadastral plans (1: 1000), thoroughly revised and connected with the triangulation of France and furnished with contours at intervals of 5 m.
The contours, 25 ft.
Till the beginning of Scale, 1:72,000 English Mile o;: Contours at intervals of10 metres 32~8 feet Railways C.S.Pancgla Bay of Thapsus Tern A rec h usa ascon of.
But it is impossible to admit within the circle of high-art productions these wooden figures of everyday men and women, unrelieved by any subjective element, and owing their merit entirely to the fidelity with which their contours are shaped, their muscles modelled, and their anatomical proportions preserved.
The oldest example of native sarcophagi are copied from Egyptian mummy-cases, painted with colours and ornamented with carvings in low relief; towards and during the Greek period the contours of the body begin to be marked more clearly on the cover.
Rather broad, smooth valleys, well degraded hills with rounded summits, and - despite the escarpments - generally smooth contours and sky-lines, characterize the whole of this Ozark region.